Skip to content

EMF Animal Behaviour & Endocrinology Studies Show Negative Effects of Frequencies over 15 Hz

When reviewing this research bibliography for EMF induced Animal Behavior Modification and Endocrinology, keep in mind that the studies below use a wide range of electromagnetic frequencies that are primarily pulsed RF at various frequencies. You’ll notice the bulk of the research on detrimental and other effects of RF is done in the former Soviet Union.

Pulsed RF rarely provide beneficial effects though a study or two seeking relief of inflammation show some anti-inflammatory effects. One study really stood out and since appears so far down the list, we’re copying that study here at the top in hope that more research is focused on the cumulative, detrimental effects of RF on the mitochondria.

230: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 May-Jun;42(3):322-30. [Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of animals] [Article in Russian] Akoev IG, Pashovkina MS, Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Kalmykov VL. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino, 142290 Russia. The dependence of activities of actomyosin ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartataminotranspherase, monoaminoxidase and that of affective rat behavior on frequency of modulation of microwaves (0.8-10 microW/cm2) was explored at short-time actions. Series of nonlinear phenomenons, inexplicable from positions of the energy approaches are revealed, The working hypothesis explaining opportunity of high performance of weak and super-weak microwaves and other revealed phenomena by resonance interaction of such electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation with paramagnetic molecules of biological tissues was proposed. This resonance interaction activate free radicals and initiate auto-supporting and auto-intensifying of chain chemical reactions. The spontaneous autocatalytic oxidation of catecholamines enlarges a common pool of free radicals, capable to participate in such enhanced generating. The protective role of monoaminoxidase is postulated. Monoaminoxidase is basically located on an outer surface of mitochondrias and it is deaminating monoamines. The deaminating prevents penetration of catecholamines inside of mitochondrias and their quinoid oxidation there with formation of free-radical semi-quinons, capable to destroy system of ATP synthesis. These inferences are obliquely confirmed by the experimentally revealed correlation between activity of monoaminoxidase and integrative activity of the rat brain. PMID: 12125273

EMF / RF and Animal Behaviour Research

To read the original source, use Pubmed and search for Title of the citation

J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2009 Dec;14(4):285-93.
PEMF fails to enhance nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush lesion.
Baptista AF, Goes BT, Menezes D, Gomes FC, Zugaib J, Stipursky J, Gomes JR, Oliveira JT, Vannier-Santos MA, Martinez AM.
Universidade Federal da Bahia, Biomorphology Department, Health Sciences Institute, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
The use of electromagnetic fields has been reported to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. This study aimed to identify the effects of a prolonged protocol of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on peripheral nerve regeneration. Thirty-four male Swiss mice (Mus musculus) were divided into PEMF (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. All animals underwent a unilateral sciatic-crush lesion, and the PEMF group was exposed to a 72-Hz, 2-G electromagnetic field for 30 min, five days a week, for three weeks. Functional analysis was carried out weekly. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and histological, morphometric, oxidative stress, and TGF-beta1 analyses were performed. Functional analysis showed no differences between the groups. Histological appearance was similar between PEMF and control nerves. Morphometric assessment showed that the exposed nerves trended toward decreased regeneration. The levels of free radicals were more pronounced in exposed nerves , but were not associated with an increase in the content of the TGF-beta1/Smad signaling pathway. Prolonged PEMF regimen leads to delayed histological peripheral nerve regeneration and increased oxidative stress but no loss of function recovery.

 Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Nov-Dec;40(6):693-5.
[Influence of electromagnetic fields on the emotional behaviour of rats]
[Article in Russian]
Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Bliskovka GI, Akoev IG.
Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region, 142290 Russia.
The effects of ultra low power pulse-width + modulation electromagnetic radiation (EMR, power density 10 mc/Wt/cm2, carrying frequency 915 MHz, modulating pulses with frequency 4, 6, 16 and 20 Hz, duration 10 min) on the rat emotional behavior and motor activity in the elevated plus-maze were studied. It was established that EMR (frequency of modulation 4 and 6 Hz) significantly decreased the emotionally negative reactions of anxiety and fear by a factor of 3.7 (p 0.01) and 4.5 (p 0.01) correspondingly and increased by a factor of 1.9-2.2 (p 0.05) exploratory activity. On the contrary EMR ( frequency of modulation 20 Hz) significantly increased by a factor of (p 0.05) emotionally negative reactions of anxiety and fear and decreased by a factor of 1.8 (p 0.05) the exploratory activity in rats.
PMID: 11155339

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Jul-Aug;50(4):703-15.
[Species specificity, age factors, and various neurochemical correlates of the animal spontaneous behavior after exposure to electromagnetic field of the ultralow intensity]
[Article in Russian]
Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow, Russia.
Behavioral and neurochemical reactions of small laboratory animals (mice and rats of different age) under exposure to ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) were studied. The EMF basically inhibited the locomotor and exploratory activity in the “open-field” test. The species- and age-specific features rather than radiation conditions dominated. However, decrease in the EMF frequency considerably intensified the observed effect. Change in animal behavior was accompanied by shifts in neurochemical processes, i.e., sharp activation of serotoninergic and inhibition of morepinephrinergic system.

 1: Georgian Med News. 2006 Nov;(140):91-3.Links [Influence of the chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field on rats under interrupted and continuous action of EMF] [Article in Russian] Tamasidze A G . The aim of the study was the investigation of chronic exposure to network frequency electromagnetic field in the rats under interrupted or continuous action of electric magnetic field. We were studying their behavior by the method of “open field”. Comparison of behavior of rats in the “open field” has shown that the significant difference in the emotional activity of rats was stated. The number of boluses and urination in rats of B group is 4,5 times more than in the individuals of C group (p0,001), but the significant difference between the rats of control A and B groups has not been stated. Although, the number of boluses in the rats of B group was a little raised, this raise was not statistically significant (p0,5). The rats of control A and C groups significantly distinguished from one another. The number of boluses and urination in the animals of C group was significantly lower (p0,001). In that way, the rats which were under the discontinuous action of electromagnetic field were distinguished by high emotionality, which occur by increase of boluses and urination, the high number grooming behavior and increase of the number of translocation, that influences the functioning of hypothalamohypophysial system.

[The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the monoamine oxidase A activity in the rat brain]
[Article in Russian]
Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Abzhalelov BB, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow oblast, Russia.
The effect of the ultralow power pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (EMR, power density 10 microW/cm2; carrying frequency 915 MHz; modulating pulses with frequency 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 20 Hz) on activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO-A), enzyme involved in the oxidative deamination of monoamines, was investigated. It was established that the increase of activity MAO in hypothalamus reached the maximal meaning at modulation frequency of 6 Hz that corresponded 160% (p 0.01) of the control level; and at modulation frequency of 20 Hz the decrease of enzyme activity up to 74% (p 0.01) was found. Mainly the action of ultralow power pulse-modulated EMR on activity of MAO in hippocamp was activating; and the maximal increase of enzyme activity up to 174% (p 0.01) was registered at modulation frequency of 4 Hz.
PMID: 11031490

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1998 Nov-Dec;28(6):686-93.
Action of modulated electromagnetic fields on the emotional component of the systems organization of behavioral acts in rats. Sudakov KV. P. K. Anokhin Science Research Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
This article reviews experimental data providing evidence on the effects of modulated electromagnetic fields of 30-120 V/m with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz modulated sinusoidally at frequencies of 2-50 Hz on the emotional responses accompanying various stages in the systems organization of behavior in rats. The blocking effects of fields were demonstrated in self-stimulation models in different types of conditioned reflex behavior, as well as during extinction of conditioned reflex responses in individual conditions and emotional intercourse. It is suggested that modulated electromagnetic fields which have information effects on the body act on the information component of behavior, i.e., emotion.
PMID: 9850964

Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 May-Jun;51(3):373-7.
[Modulation by ultralow intensity electromagnetic fields on pharmacologic effects of psychotropic drugs]
[Article in Russian]
Shtemberg AS, Bazian AS, Shikhov SN, Cherniakov GM, Uzbekov MG. National Research Center Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Research Institute of Psychiatry, Russian Ministry of Public Health, Moscow.
The ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density of 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) potentiated the hypnogenic effect of hexenal. The exposure to the EMF shortened the time of falling asleep induced by this drug and increased sleep duration in rats. The exposure to the EMF also potentiated haloperidol catalepsy: it decreased the drug threshold dose and increased the catalepsy duration. The EMF influence on the haloperidol effects was of a prolonged character: it was manifest in a selected suppression of the emotional excitation in the open-field test within 24 hours after the exposure.
PMID: 11550647

6: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Sep-Oct;50(5):867-77. [The neurotropic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves in rats with different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazian AS, Cherniakov GM. National Research Center, Institute of Medical and Biological Problems, Moscow. The effects of the ultralow-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF, frequency of 4200 and 970 MHz, modulated by a quasistochastic signal in the range of 20-20,000 Hz, power density 15 microW/cm2, specific body absorption rate up to 4.5 mJ/kg) on the reactions of the central nervous system (CNS) of rats with different types of behavior were studied. Some neurochemical and behavioral mechanisms of rats’ reactions were investigated. It was shown that the EMF produce pronounced changes in the state and activity of monoaminergic brain systems. These changes, on the whole, correspond to the alterations at the integrative level (predominantly, of the inhibitory character). PMID: 11085002

8: Folia Med (Plovdiv). 1999;41(3):75-80. Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on behavioral activity of rats. Kemerov S, Marinkev M, Getova D. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Higher Medical Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The present study aimed at comparative assessment of the changes in behavioral activity of rats after exposing them to low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the meter, decimeter and centimeter ranges. The experiments were carried out on 24 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups (1 control and 3 experimental), treated with different EMFs. The rats were irradiated on the head area at power density of 10 mW/cm2. Using a conventional shuttle box, the conditioned and non-conditioned responses and spontaneous motor activity of the rats were studied. The results suggest that exposure to EMFs in the three ranges can slow down the formation of conditioned responses–this was clearly marked in the rats exposed to meter EMFs, whereas the effects of centimeter EMFs were delayed in time. The behavioral effects were mild at athermal dosages and the animals adapted easily to exposure conditions. This study shows that determination of the effects of different EMFs should be done for each of the ranges separately; determination of the exact dosage of the electromagnetic fields can help to avoid their negative biological effects. PMID: 10658372

11: Radiobiologiia. 1990 May-Jun;30(3):395-9. [The effect of an SHF field on the dopamine-dependent behavior of rats] [Article in Russian] Andreeva LA, Konovalov VF. A study was made of the influence of SHF radiation (8 mW/cm2, carrier frequency 0.88 Hz, modulation frequency 16 Hz) on rotation of rats induced by apomorphine. A single exposure within an hour was shown to inhibit apomorphine-induced rotation by 21%. Daily one-hour exposure within 5 days caused a more pronounced inhibition of test-response. Different individual sensitivity to SHF radiation was noted. PMID: 2371398
12: Bioelectromagnetics. 1999 Sep;20(6):378-86. Influence of combined DC and AC magnetic fields on rat behavior. Zhadin MN, Deryugina ON, Pisachenko TM. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Moscow Region, Russia. The action of combined parallel static (DC) and alternating (AC) magnetic fields at the cyclotron frequencies for different biologically active ions, specifically, calcium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium and lithium, on rat behavior in the “open field” were investigated. It was shown that the DC and AC fields at the calcium cyclotron frequency lower the locomotor and exploratory activity of the rats, whereas action of the fields at the magnesium cyclotron frequency enhances these forms of behavioral activity. The effects were qualitatively alike at the weak (50 microT) and relatively strong (500 microT) DC fields with proportional changes in the frequencies and amplitudes of the AC fields. Statistically significant effects of cyclotron frequencies for other ions studied were not observed. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 10453066

15: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Apr;81(4):21-31. [The physiological mechanisms of the regulation of zoosocial behavior in rats exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Sidiakin VG, Stashkov AM, Ianova NP, Chemodanova MA, Shumilina KA, Kirillova AV. The infraslow frequency electromagnetic fields were shown to affect social activity in rats: the changes induced by territorial priority and isolation were eliminated, an interaction between the motor activity and the social status appeared. The monoaminergic system of the rat brain seems to take part in physiological mechanisms of regulation of the zoosocial behaviour according to changes in ambient conditions. (can you say mind control?) PMID: 7581573

17: Biofizika. 2002 Jan-Feb;47(1):71-7. [Suppression of nonspecific resistance of the body under the effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity] [Article in Russian] Kolomytseva MP, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Chemeris NK. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. The dynamics of leukocyte number and functional activity of peripheral blood neutrophils under whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR, 42.0 GHz, 0.15 mW/cm2, 20 min daily) was studied. It was shown that the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils was suppressed by about 50% (p < 0.01 as compared with the sham-exposed control) in 2-3 h after the single exposure to EHF EMR. The effect persisted for 1 day after the exposure, and then the phagocytic activity of neutrophils returned to the norm within 3 days. A significant modification of the leukocyte blood profile in mice exposed to EHF EMR for 5 days was observed after the cessation of exposures: the number of leukocytes increased by 44% (p 0.05 as compared with sham-exposed animals), mostly due to an increase in the lymphocyte content. The supposition was made that EHF EMR effects can be mediated via the metabolic systems of arachidonic acid and the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, with subsequent increase in the intracellular cAMP level. The results indicated that the whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity EHF EMR has a profound effect on the indices of nonspecific immunity. PMID: 11855293
18: Vrach Delo. 1991 Mar;(3):49-51. [The biological activity of a decameter-range electromagnetic field with a frequency of 24 MHz] [Article in Russian] Bezdol’naia IS, Dumanskii IuD, Smolia AL. A study of behavioural reactions indicates that the effect of 24 MHz frequencies of the electromagnetic field results in changes of the ratio of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the nervous system of white rats with prevalence of inhibitory processes. By the 90-th day of effect of the above factor all changes returned to the initial level. This indicates stability of the adaptative reactions of the integrative level of the nervous system to the acting factor. PMID: 2042349
19: Gig Sanit. 1991 May;(5):28-30. [Late sequelae of the effect of electromagnetic field on animals] [Article in Russian] Gromyko NM, Krivodaeva OL, Zemskova VV. Simple and complex forms of behaviour, gas composition and acid-alkaline blood status in rats following exposure to the electro-static field (ESF) and iraionization, as well as in their offspring were studied. It has been found out, that ESF combined with the negative polarity air ionization damage motor and sex activity, conditioned-reflectory activity, changes blood indices. The observed disturbances in the organism of parent animals influenced fetus development. PMID: 1916334

20: Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1979 Jan-Feb;51(1):14-7. [Effect of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the processes of transamination in the liver and small intestine tissues of rats] [Article in Russian] Faitel-berg-Blank VR, Lekhan IG. The influence of electromagnetic waves of metrical and centimetrical range on the transaminoferases activity was studied in the liver and small intestine of 69 rats. The experiment shows that the activity of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases is dependent on the power and duration of the action. It is established that the action of both the short-wave 160 mA diathermy and 30 MW/cm2 microwaves for 20 min is accompanied by inhibition of the liver and small intestine aminotransferases activity. The 20 min action of 12 MW/cm2 microwaves induces an increase in the aminotransferases activity of the liver, small intestine and serum. PMID: 425131

23: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003 Jan-Feb;43(1):75-81. [Effects of microwave radiation on conditioned behavior of rats] [Article in Russian] Zhavoronkov LP, Kolganova OI, Dubovik BV, Matrenina VL, Posadskaia VM. Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Obninsk, 249036 Russia. Research has been carried out to investigate the effects of microwave exposure (7 GHz, surface energy density 10-50 mW/cm2, SAR 2.1-10.5 W/kg) on learned behaviors of rats in the paradigm of conditioned avoidance reflex. It was shown that transitory reductions in conditioned behavior after acute microwave exposure occurred at an SAR equal to the intensity of rat basal metabolism. It was found cumulative effects for intermittent exposures of rats at a power density of 10 mW/cm2. PMID: 12677663

24: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jan-Feb;41(1):62-6. [Effect of low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation on activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood serum] [Article in Russian] Pashovkina MS, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142292 Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142292 Russia. The change in alkaline phosphotase activity in vitro with frequencies modulation at low intensity of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation was experimentally shown (EMR, 2375 MHz, intensity: 0.8, 8.0; 40.0 microW/cm2; range modulation: 30-310 Hz; time of interaction: 1-3 min). Revealed effects could be regarded as an evidence of informative character of interaction of modulated EMR. PMID: 11253703 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE
26: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1995 Jan;29(1):41-3. [Effects of pregnant exposure to electromagnetic field emitted by electric blankets on brain catecholamine and behavior in offspring mice] [Article in Chinese] Yao G, Fu Y, Lu D. Microwave Laboratory, Zhejiang Medical University, Hangzhou. NIH pregnant mice were exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by electric blankets with 1-1.2kV/m and 0.2-0.4microT for five hours daily during their whole gestational period. Catecholamine (CA) content in the hypothalamus of their newborn offsprings was quantitatively measured with histochemical methods, and their varied behavioral activities were determined with behavioral toxicological methods. Results showed catecholamine content in exposed offsprings decreased significantly not only seven days but also 40 days after delivery as compared with the controls (P 0.01 and P 0.05, respectively). PMID: 7600890

28: Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2001 Sep-Oct;31(5):547-53. Some neurotropic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves in rats with different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity. Shtemberg AS, Uzbekov MG, Shikhov SN, Bazyan AS, Chernyakov GM. Institute of Medical-Biological Problems, State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Moscow. The effects of low-intensity electromagnetic waves (4200 MHz, modulated with quasichaotic signals at 20-20,000 Hz, energy density 15 microW/cm2; specific energy absorption not greater than 15 mJ/kg) on the neurochemical systems of the brain and on behavioral reactions were studied in experimental animals with different typological characteristics of higher nervous activity. These studies showed that electromagnetic waves produced marked changes in the state and activity of the monoaminergic mediator systems which were in general terms concordant with changes at the integrative level (mostly selective inhibitory effects). The nature of these processes depended to a significant extent on the typological characteristics of the animals. PMID: 11693480

29: Mutat Res. 1998 Apr;410(2):185-220. Animal and cellular studies on carcinogenic effects of low frequency (50/60-Hz) magnetic fields. Loscher W, Liburdy RP. Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 9637236

30: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1989 Jan-Feb;23(1):45-7. [Effect of a hypogeomagnetic field on warm-blooded animals] [Article in Russian] Levina RV, Smirnov RV, Olimpienko TS. This paper presents the study of the effect of a 3-month exposure of adult male rats of the Wistar strain to the hypogeomagnetic field (the shielding factor = 172.5) on their behavior, learning ability, cardiovascular function and work capacity. It was found that the exposure led to a significant decrease of work capacity, endurance and behavioral activity as well as to a significant increase of heart rate and time of conditioned reflex development. The above changes remained within physiological limits due to which they can be viewed as adaptation variations. PMID: 2709751

31: Life Sci. 2003 Apr 18;72(22):2489-98. Combined effects of complex magnetic fields and agmatine for contextual fear learning deficits in rats. McKay BE, Persinger MA. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Ontario, P3E 2C6, Sudbury, Canada. Acute post-training exposures to weak intensity theta-burst stimulation (TBS) patterned complex magnetic fields attenuated the magnitude of conditioned fear learning for contextual stimuli. A similar learning impairment was evoked in a linear and dose-dependent manner by pre-conditioning injections of the polyamine agmatine. The present study examined the hypothesis that whole-body applications of the TBS complex magnetic field pattern when co-administered with systemic agmatine treatment may combine to evoke impairments in contextual fear learning. Within minutes of 4 mg/kg agmatine injections, male Wistar rats were fear conditioned to contextual stimuli and immediately exposed for 30 min to the TBS patterned complex magnetic field or to sham conditions. TBS patterned complex magnetic field treatment was found to linearly summate with the contextual fear learning impairment evoked by agmatine treatment alone. Furthermore, we report for sham-treated rats, but not rats exposed to the synthetic magnetic field pattern, that the magnitude of learned fear decreased and the amount of variability in learning increased, as the K-index (a measure of change in intensity of the time-varying ambient geomagnetic field) increased during the 3-hr intervals over which conditioning and testing sessions were conducted. PMID: 1265085732: Behav Pharmacol.

1999 Mar;10(2):131-7. Effects of GABA-transporter (GAT) inhibitors on rat behaviour in open-field and elevated plus-maze. Schmitt U, Hiemke C. Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz, Germany. The behavioural consequences of inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake were studied. Two GABA uptake inhibitors, tiagabine and SKF 89976-A, were administered to rats, and behaviour was analysed 30 min later in a standard open field, an enriched open field, and an elevated plus-maze. Eight groups of animals received either saline (0.9%), tiagabine, or SKF 89976-A. At a dose of 18.5 mg/kg, tiagabine, an established antiseizure drug, impaired motor coordination, enhanced exploratory activity and reduced anxiety related behaviour. SKF 89976-A exhibited minimal effects over the dose range tested. These results indicate that inhibition of GABA uptake might be a pharmacological strategy to treat not only epilepsy, but also anxiety disorders. PMID: 10780826

33: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Jul-Aug;41(4):403-7. [Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat’s thymus cells] [Article in Russian] Zhitkevich TI, Bokut’ TB, Netukova NI. Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk, 220072 Belarus. Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1) diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes. PMID: 11605242

35: Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Jun;66(6):562-7. No detectable bioeffects following acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide band electromagnetic radiation in rats. Walters TJ, Mason PA, Sherry CJ, Steffen C, Merritt JH. Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., Brooks AFB, TX 78235, USA. A wide range assessment of the possible bioeffects of an acute exposure to high peak power ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic radiation was performed in rats. The UWB-exposure consisted of 2 min of pulsed (frequency: 60 Hz, pulse width: 5-10 ns) UWB (bandwidth: 0.25-2.50 GHz) electromagnetic radiation. Rats were examined using one of the following: 1) a functional observational battery (FOB); 2) a swimming performance test; 3) a complete panel of blood chemistries; or 4) determination of the expression of the c-fos protein in immunohistologically-stained sections of the brain. No significant differences were found between UWB- or sham-exposed rats on any of the measured parameters. PMID: 7646407

 38: Sci Total Environ. 1996 Feb 2;180(1):35-42. Experimental study of the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on animals with soft tissue wounds. Detlavs I, Dombrovska L, Turauska A, Shkirmante B, Slutskii L. Latvian Medical Academy, National Hospital of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Riga. The effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) was studied on Wistar rats with excised full-thickness dermal wounds in the interscapular region. The wounded regions of experimental animals were subjected to EMF for 30 min daily during the first 5 days after wound infliction. Control animals received no treatment. We used RF EMF with (1) frequency 53.53 GHz without modulation; (2) frequency 42.19 GHz without modulation; (3) frequency 42.19 GHz, but with a frequency modulation band 200-MHz wide. On the 7th day the animals were terminated and the granulation-fibrous tissue (GFT) developed in the wounds was subjected to complex quantitative biochemical analysis. RF EMF without frequency modulation decreased the amounts of glycoprotein macromolecules, diminishing the inflammatory exudation. In striking contrast, under the influence of RF EMF with frequency modulation, hexoses and especially sialic acid concentrations were significantly elevated (P 0.001). This indicated intensification of exudative phenomena. As a consequence of inflammation inhibition in the treatment without frequency modulation, the total collagen accumulation was lowered. However, when frequency was modulated, the inflammatory phenomena were intensified, and pronounced accumulation of collagenous proteins was noted. Thus, our experiments confirm the effects of non-thermal EMF on the reparative-proliferative processes of animals with soft tissue wounds. PMID: 8717318

41: Environ Health Perspect. 1979 Jun;30:115-21. Study of nonionizing microwave radiation effects upon the central nervous system and behavior reactions. Shandala MG, Dumanskii UD, Rudnev MI, Ershova LK, Los IP. The biologic effect of an electromagnetic field of a frequency of 2375 +/- 50 MHz was studied in rats and rabbits in specially constructed absorbant chambers. The results of the investigations have shown that microwave radiation of 10, 50, 500 mu W/cm2 for 30 days, 7 hr/day, causes a number of changes in bioelectric brain activity and also in behavioral immunological, and cytochemical reactions. It was found that levels of 10 and 50 mu W/cm2 stimulate the electric brain activity at the initial stage of irradiation, while a level of 500 mu W/cm2 causes its suppression, as seen from the increase of slow, high amplitude delta-waves. At 500 mu W/cm2 a decrease in capacity of work, in value of unconditioned feeding stimulus, in investigating activity, electronic irradiation threshold, and in inhibition of cellular and humoral immunity were also observed. PMID: 446442
42: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2000 Sep-Oct;50(5):878-83. [The dynamics of the manifestation of behavioral audiogenic seizure activity in rats under the action of a modulated and a nonmodulated electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Konovalov VF, Serikov IS. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino. It was shown that the electromagnetic field of low intensity modifies the evoked epileptiform seizure activity in rats. Cumulative effect of the electromagnetic field persisted over the course of 6 months. It was suggested that inhibition of the increased motor activity under exposure to electromagnetic field is caused by the involvement of dopaminergic brain systems and development of the resonance effects in cortico-subcortical brain structures under the influence of modulated electromagnetic fields. PMID: 11085003
43: Lik Sprava. 1995 Jul-Aug;(7-8):37-9. [The cytogenetic action of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range] [Article in Russian] Timchenko OI, Ianchevskaia NV. Electromagnetic field (EMF) at a frequency of 24 or 14 MEGC and intensity of 400 or 200 V/m, increases numbers of hepatocytes from rats with chromosomal aberrations 1.4-1.5-fold. The magnitude of the response does not appear to change with the increase in the field intensity EMF at the above frequencies and intensity of 100 V/m does not cause any cytogenetic effects. No such effects were notable with EMF-frequency of 4 MEGC. PMID: 8846369
44: IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2002 Jan-Feb;21(1):90-1. EMF cancer scares: epidemiology versus body power. Deutsch S. PMID: 11935994
45: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1994 Jun;80(6):50-62. [Intersystemic functional integration under the action on the body of electromagnetic factors] [Article in Russian] Vediaev FP, Samokhvalov VG. Frequency zones of the brain electrical activity, heart rate and respiration were studied through certain parameters characterised by individual asymmetry and low but stable intersystemic integration. Chronic electromagnetic irradiation reduced a resistance against an emotional stress as manifested in a “decay” of individual spatial-temporal infrastructure of informational parameters of the EEG, heart rate and respiration. PMID: 7531066

47: Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 1995 Sep-Dec;31(5-6):573-83. [A comparative histochemical study of cytochrome oxidase activity in the somatosensory and auditory brain centers in the normal rat and after exposure to superhigh-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Krasnoshchekova EI, Rumiantseva TA, Kulikov GA. Using histochemical method mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase (CO) in acoustic and somatosensory centers of rat brain has been studied to reveal CO activity distribution in norm and after impulse-modulated high-ultra-high frequency influence. After ultra-high frequency influence the increase of enzymic activity in a number of regions of rat brain centers with relationship to processing ecologically important sensory signals is revealed. PMID: 8714296

49: Phytomedicine. 2000 Jun;7(3):199-203. Agastache mexicana may produce anxiogenic-like actions in the male rat. Molina-Hernandez M, Tellez-Alcantara P, Martinez E. Instituto de Investigaciones Psicologicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico. Behavioral effects of a water-soluble extract of Agastache mexicana, a plant with purported anxiolytic actions, were studied in male Wistar rats. In the elevated plus-maze test, various doses of the plant extract (3.0 mg/kg body wt.; 9.0 mg/kg body wt.; 12.0 mg/kg body wt.) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) decreased the exploration of open arms, showing an anxiogenic-like effect. Agastache mexicana (12 mg/kg body wt.; i.p.) did not change immobility in the forced swimming test (i.e., had no anti-depressant effect) but increased the anti-immobility action of 32.0 mg/kg body wt. (i.p.) of desipramine (i.e., increased the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine). A. mexicana had no effect on exploratory activity in an open field test, indicating that it had no sedative effect at the doses used. It is concluded that effects of the water extract of A. mexicana are more consistent with an anxiogenic-like property than an anxiolytic-like one. PMID: 11185730
51: J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1975 Apr;89(2):183-8. Avoidance by rats of illumination with low power nonionizing electromagnetic energy. Frey AH, Feld SR. Rats spent more time in the halves of shuttle boxes that were shielded from illumination by 1.2 GHz microwave energy than in the unshielded. In Experiment 1, rats avoided the energy when it was presented as 30-musec pulses with a pulse repetition rate of 100 pulses per second (pps). The average power density was about .6 mW/cm2, and the peak power density was about 200 mW/cm2. In Experiment
2, the energy was presented both continuously and in pulse-modulated form, i.e., .5-msec exponentially decaying pulses at a rate of 1,000 pps. The average power density of the continuous energy was 2.4 mW/cm2, and the average power density of the pulse-modulated energy was .2 mW/cm2. The peak power density of the modulated energy was 2.1 mW/cm2. The rats avoided the pulsed energy, but not the continuous energy. PMID: 1133237
52: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1977 Aug;84(8):146-9. [Hypnogenic action of a modulated electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Sudakov KV, Antimonii GD. Behavioristic and electroencephalographic changes in rats under long-lasting modulated electromagnetic field (frequency of 40 MHz, modulation frequency 50 Hz, intensity 100–120 V/m) were studied. Some phasic disorders in the conditioned feeding and defense reactions were observed, including cataleptic state as a result of the action of modulated electromagnetic field. These behavioristic disorders are determined by the changes in the normal cortico-subcortical relationships. PMID: 561631
53: Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000 Aug;130(8):746-8. Emotional state and one-trial learning in OXYS rats with hereditarily elevated production of oxygen radicals. Loskutova LV, Kolosova NG. Institute of Physiology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk. Comparative analysis of unconditioned and conditioned behavior of Wistar and prematurely aging OXYS rats revealed that the latter have significantly reduced locomotor and exploratory activities, increased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze test, spatial disorientation, and abnormal associative learning. OXYS rats can be used as a biological model for studying molecular, neurobiological, and neurochemical mechanisms of brain aging. PMID: 11177232
54: Z Naturforsch [C]. 1994 May-Jun;49(5-6):352-8. Resonance effect of low-intensity millimeter waves on the chromatin conformational state of rat thymocytes. Belyaev SYa, Kravchenko VG. Scientific Research Center Vidguk, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Russia. The method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD) was modified for the study of the changes in the chromatin conformational state (CCS) of rat thymocytes of the Wistar line. The response of the thymocytes of male rats to low-intensity millimeter waves (MMW) was examined. It was shown that MMW at power densities (PD) of 1 microW/cm2 produced a resonance effect on the CCS in the frequency range of 41.56-41.67 GHz. The resonance frequency of the cell response did not vary significantly among five examined rats and was determined to be 41.61 +/- 0.01 GHz. A halfwidth of resonances was averaged to 40 MHz. The power dependence of the resonance effect was measured in the range of 10(-11)-10(-4) W/cm2. Statistically significant changes in CCS were registered, starting with 10(-9) W/cm2. Right- and left-handed circularly polarized MMW were shown to differ in efficiency at the resonance frequency. The established regularities in the thymocyte response to low-intensity MMW was very similar to those which have been previously found for E. coli cells. PMID: 8060460
57: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2001 Mar-Apr;41(2):207-9. [The delayed effects of modulated and non-modulated electromagnetic field on epileptiformic activity in rats] [Article in Russian] Konovalov VF, Serikov IS. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, 142290 Russia. The modifying influence of the weak electromagnetic field on the development of the audiogenic spasmodic activity in rats was shown. The decrease of lifetime of experimental rats exposed to electromagnetic fields with different parameters and development of tumours (in one set of experiments) was found. PMID: 1140255558: Acta Med Austriaca. 2000;27(3):69-77. [Electromagnetic fields–effects on health] [Article in German] Stepansky R, Jahn O, Windischbauer G, Zeitlhofer J. Universitatsklinik fur Neurologie, Wien. This literature review shows the current knowledge of health effects on humans concerning static, low frequency electric and magnetic fields and high frequency electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz. Basic physical knowledge and the current thresholds are demonstrated. Different frequency ranges of electromagnetic fields, their natural and technical origins and the different biological effects, especially possible hazards such as cancerogenity or risks for the brain, are discussed. Open questions and future research aspects are demonstrated. Finally electrosensibility and psychological aspects are shown. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 1089738559: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1995 Jan-Feb;35(1):29-35. [Motor activity of rabbits in conditions of chronic low-intensity pulse microwave irradiation] [Article in Russian] Grigor’ev IuG, Luk’ianova SN, Makarov VP, Rynskov VV, Moiseeva NV. Motor activity of rabbits under daily thirty-minute irradiation (1.5 GHz, pulse duration 16 ms, pulse recurrence frequency 0.12 Hz, pulse intensity 0.3 mw/cm2) for one month was studied. From 14th day the reliable disadaptation changes such as an anxiety and alarm reaction were found. The importance of prolonged irradiation is noted. PMID: 7719427
64: Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Oct;21(7):524-37. Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR. Air Force Research Laboratory, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Brooks AFB, Texas 78235-5324, USA. Several investigators have reported teratologic effects of electromagnetic field exposure. The majority of these studies have been performed at levels of exposure that could produce substantial heating of the animals. New and unique sources of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic fields are currently being developed and tested that are capable of generating nonthermalizing, high-peak-power, microwave (MW) pulses with nanosecond (ns) pulse widths, picosecond (ps) rise times, and an UWB of frequencies. Our study was performed to determine if teratological changes occur in rat pups as a result of (i) daily UWB exposures during gestation days 3-18, or (ii) as a result of both prenatal and postnatal (10 days) exposures. Dams were exposed either to (i) UWB irradiation from a Kentech system that emitted a 55 kV/m-peak E field, 300 ps rise time, and a 1.8 ns pulse width, average whole-body specific absorption rate 45 mW/kg; (ii) sham irradiation; or (iii) a positive control, lead (Pb) acetate solution (2000 microg/ml) continuously available in the drinking water. Offspring were examined for ontogeny (litter size, sex-ratios, weights, coat appearance, tooth-eruption, eye-opening, air-righting, and ultrasonic stress vocalizations). Male pups were tested on various performance measures (locomotor, water-maze learning, and fertilization capabilities). The pups postnatally exposed were examined for hippocampal morphology and operant behavior. Behavioral, functional, and morphological effects of UWB exposure were unremarkable with these exceptions: (i) The UWB-exposed pups emitted significantly more stress vocalizations than the sham-exposed pups; (ii) the medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the UWB-exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals; (iii) male offspring exposed in utero to UWB mated significantly less frequently than sham-exposed males, but when they did mate there was no difference in fertilization and offspring numbers from the sham group. There does not appear to be a unifying physiological or behavioral relationship among the significant differences observed, and our findings could be due to the expected spurious results derived when a large number of statistical comparisons are made. Significant effects found between our positive-controls and other groups on numerous measures indicates that the techniques used were sensitive enough to detect teratological effects. Bioelectromagnetics 21:524-537, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 1101511765:
Radiat Res. 2001 Feb;155(2):369-77. Repeated exposure of C3H/HeJ mice to ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses: lack of effects on mammary tumors. Jauchem JR, Ryan KL, Frei MR, Dusch SJ, Lehnert HM, Kovatch RM. Air Force Research Laboratory, Radio Frequency Radiation Branch, Directed Energy Bioeffects Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, USA. It has been suggested that chronic, low-level exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation may promote the formation of tumors. Previous studies, however, showed that low-level, long-term exposure of mammary tumor-prone mice to 435 MHz or 2450 MHz RF radiation did not affect the incidence of mammary tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exposure to a unique type of electromagnetic energy: pulses composed of an ultra-wideband (UWB) of frequencies, including those in the RF range. One hundred C3H/HeJ mice were exposed to UWB pulses (rise time 176 ps, fall time 3.5 ns, pulse width 1.9 ns, peak E-field 40 kV/m, repetition rate 1 kHz). Each animal was exposed for 2 min once a week for 12 weeks. One hundred mice were used as sham controls. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to incidence of palpated mammary tumors, latency to tumor onset, rate of tumor growth, or animal survival. Histopathological evaluations revealed no significant differences between the two groups in numbers of neoplasms in all tissues studied (lymphoreticular tissue, thymus, respiratory, digestive and urinary tracts, reproductive, mammary and endocrine systems, and skin). Our major finding was the lack of effects of UWB-pulse exposure on promotion of mammary tumors in a well-established animal model of mammary cancer. PMID: 1117567366:
Pol J Occup Med. 1988;1(4):329-39. Influence of a static magnetic field on the reproductive function, certain biochemical indices and behaviour of rats. Grzesik J, Bortel M, Duda D, Kuska R, Ludyga K, Michnik J, Smolka B, Sowa B, Trzeciak H, Zielinski G. PMID: 297956868: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):30-2. [Hygienic evaluation and the problems of standardization of magnetic fields with the frequency of 50 Hz] [Article in Russian] Ziubanova LF, Karamyshev VB, Shestakov VG. It is established that some kinds of technological equipment are the sources of the magnetic fields with the frequency of 50 Hz, their biologic activity being identified. Hygienic classification and approaches to differentiated standardization of the above factor are suggested with account of time and energetic parameters. PMID: 259939869:
Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1976 Sep-Oct;26(5):899-909. [Modulated electromagnetic field as a factor of selective influence on animal mechanisms of goal-directed behavior] [Article in Russian] Sudakov KV. Proceeding from P.K. Anokhin’s theory of the functional systems, the paper considers the action of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) on different stages of the central architectonics of purposeful behaviour of rats: afferent synthesis, decisions making, acceptor of the action results. The action of MEMF was studied in different experimental situations: choice of an alimentary or defensive reaction to one conditioned stimulus in different situations; extinction of conditioned alimentary reactions; elaboration and extinction of alimentary conditioned reactions in animals group contacts; choice of the side of reinforcement in a T-shaped maze, and, lastly, self-stimulation reactions. The experiments have shown that MEMF has a selective effect on the animals’ emotional reactions. Greater disturbances are observed in the mechanisms of the animals’ appraisal of the action of situational and trigger stimuli or surrounding individuals of their species and, hence, of decisions making and anticipation of future results of the action, the acceptor of the action results. PMID: 99793571: Med Pr. 1981;32(6):393-402.
[Glycosaminoglycans in the brain of rats subjected to electromagnetic field action] [Article in Polish] Matych S. Investigations on changes of glucosaminoglycans content were carried out in the brain of the rats irradiated once (30 min.) or several times (2-6 hours daily). The following frequencies of e-m fields were used: 2880 MHz (pulse modulation 1000 Hz, pulse duration 1,5 mus); 150 MHz (50 V/m); 175 MHz (150 V/m); 3000 MHz c.w. continuous wave). Control groups of animals were not subject to irradiation. Statistically significant increase of GAG content was found in the brain of the rats, irradiated in e-m field of frequency 2880 MHz in comparison with GAG concentration in the controls. In the brains of animals exposed to e-m fields of frequencies 150 and 175 MHz a statistically significant decrease of GAG content was noted in comparison with GAG content in the controls. Whereas e-m field of frequency 3000 MHz c.w. did not induce statistically significant changes in GAG content in experimental animals as compared with the controls. PMID: 680474272:
Biofizika. 2002 Jul-Aug;47(4):759-68. [A study of absorption of energy of the extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in the rat skin by various dosimetric methods and approaches] [Article in Russian] Gapeev AB, Sokolov PA, Chemeris NK. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. Using experimental and theoretical methods of dosimetry, the energy absorption of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in the skin of laboratory rats was analyzed. Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the skin was determined on the basis of both microthermometric measurements of initial rates of temperature rise in rat skin induced by the exposure and microcalorimetric measurements of specific heat of the skin. Theoretical calculations of SAR in the skin were performed with consideration for dielectric parameters of rat skin obtained from the measurements of the standing wave ratio upon reflection of electromagnetic waves from the skin surface and for the effective area of stationary overheating measured by infrared thermography. A numerical method was developed to determine electromagnetic wave energy reflected, absorbed, and transmitted in the model of flat layers. The algorithm of the method was realized in a computer program and used to calculate SAR in the skin on the basis of the complex dielectric constant of rat skin. The SAR values obtained from experimental measurements, theoretical calculations and numerical analysis are in good mutual correspondence and make about 220-280 W/kg at a frequency of 42.25 GHz and a power of 20 mW at the radiator output. The results obtained can be used for dosimetric supply of biomedical experiments on studying the physicochemical mechanisms of the biological effects of EHF EMR. PMID: 1229821873: Gig Sanit. 1991 Aug;(8):52-3. [Behavioral effects of the combined chronic action of 9375 and 1765 MHz microwaves] [Article in Russian] Navakatikian MA, Nikitina NG, Zotov SV. Combined pulse-discrete microwave irradiation (9375 and 1765 MHz, irradiance flux density to 375 microW/cm2, by 12 h/day for 4 months) caused faint inhibition of CNS in locomotion activity and defensive reflex parameters. PMID: 193710074: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):722-6. [Effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on the animal body within the framework of total low-dose x-ray irradiation] [Article in Russian] Gubkina EA, Kushnir AE, Bereziuk SK, Potapov VA, Lepekhin EA. Effect of low-intensive electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (EMR EHF) on the rats, subjected to the low-dose X-ray irradiation (6.192 mC/rg) was investigated. Content of glial fibrillary acidic protein as well as glucose content and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase was studied. It was shown than EMR EHF modifies the X-ray irradiation effect: filament GFAP concentration in brain and glucose content in serum were restored. The authors suggest central nervous system participation in realization of EMR EHF effects on the organism. PMID: 901928475:
Radiobiologiia. 1987 Jul-Aug;27(4):567-9. [Effect of electromagnetic fields of UHF range on dopamine-dependent behavior of rabbits] [Article in Russian] Andreeva LA, Konovalov VF, Podol’skii IIa. SHF radiation of low intensity does not influence on a stereotyped behaviour of rabbits induced by a dopamine receptor stimulator, apomorphine. However, 10% of animals exhibited a marked decrease in the test-response after SHF-irradiation (16 Hz) which was perhaps associated with the increased individual sensitivity of some animals to SHF-radiation. PMID: 362874376:
Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1998 Nov-Dec;48(6):1043-50. [The characteristics of the effect of tuftsin on the behavior and on the level of biogenic amines in the brain of rats with differing resistance to acoustic stress] [Article in Russian] Ismailova KhIu, Semenova TP, Iskanderova MD, Fast AE. Karaev Institute of Physiology, Azerbaijani Academy of Sciences, Baku. The influence of tetrapeptide tuftsin (Tyr-Lys-Pro-Arg) on learning, exploratory activity, emotional behavior, and hypothalamic monoamine content was studied in Wistar rats with different resistance to stress induced by acoustic stimuli. Positive effects of taftsin were more pronounced in low-resistant rats. Administration of taftsin induced in these animals a significant increase in reactivity to stimuli of different modalities, the open-field exploratory activity, rate of alimentary conditioning and its modification in emotionally negative situation. Biochemical examinations showed that in rats with high resistance to stress taftsin administration led to a decrease in hypothalamic noradrenaline level and increase in dopamine and serotonin levels. On the contrary, in low-resistant animals taftsin increased the level of noradrenaline and decreased that of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. It is suggested that different behavioral effects of taftsin in stress-resistant and nonresistant rats are caused by its different influence on hypothalamic biogenic amines. PMID: 9929913
77: Biofizika. 2000 Jan-Feb;45(1):130-6. [Changes in serum alkaline phosphatase activity during in vitro exposure to amplitude-modulated electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (2375 MHz) in guinea pigs] [Article in Russian] Pashovkina MS, Akoev IG. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. The activity of alkaline phosphatase by the action of pulse-modulated microwave radiation was studied. The carrier frequency of radiation was 2375 MHz, the range of modulation pulse rate was 10-390 Hz with the on-off time ratio 2, and the specific absorption rate was 8 and 0.8 microW/cm2. Time of exposure was 1 and 3 min under conditions of continuous temperature control. It was shown that the activity of alkaline phosphatase depends on both modulation frequency and intensity of superhigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation. At a frequency of 70 Hz, the activity of alkaline phosphatases increased 1.8-2.0 times. PMID: 1073222278: Gig Sanit. 1983 Mar;(3):86-9. [Age-related sensitivity of the body of an animal to superhigh-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Koziarin IP, Shvaiko II. PMID: 6852577
79: Bioelectromagnetics. 1999 Oct;20(7):453-8. Erratum in: Bioelectromagnetics 2000 Jan;21(1):73. Power frequency fields promote cell differentiation coincident with an increase in transforming growth factor-beta(1) expression. Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Keeping H, Wang S, Capuano A, Polk C. Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University School of Medicine Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA. Recent information from several laboratories suggest that power frequency fields may stimulate cell differentiation in a number of model systems. In this way, they may be similar to pulsed electromagnetic fields, which have been used therapeutically. However, the effects of power frequency fields on phenotypic or genotypic expression have not been explained. This study describes the ability of power frequency fields to accelerate cell differentiation in vivo and describes dose relationships in terms of both amplitude and exposure duration. No change in proliferation or cell content were observed. A clear dose relationship, in terms of both amplitude and duration of exposure, was determined with the maximal biological response occurring at 0.1 mT and 7-9 h/day. Because this study was designed to explore biological activity at environmental exposure levels, this exposure range does not necessarily define optimal dosing conditions from the therapeutic point of view. This study reports the stimulation by power frequency fields of transforming growth factor-beta, an important signalling cytokine known to regulate cell differentiation. The hypothesis is raised that the stimulation of regulatory cytokines by electromagnetic fields may be an intermediary mechanism by which these fields have their biological activity. PMID: 1049531180:
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1976 Jun;47(6):644-8. Effect of electromagnetic pulse on avoidance behavior and electroencephalogram of a rhesus monkey. Mattsson JL, Oliva SA. A 12-kg male rhesus monkey was exposed to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) at 266 kv/m, 5 pulses/s, for 1 h (18,700 pulses). The effects of EMP on Sidman avoidance behavior and on post-exposure electroencephalogram were evaluated, and no significant changes were detected. An analysis of an EMP showed that it contained various frequency components extending from 0 Hz to 10(9) Hz. However, the pulse configuration was such that its power was mainly confined to the longer wave-lengths (less than 30 MHz). The lack of biologic effect was attributed to the fact that the wavelengths were long relative to the size of the monkey, and little energy deposition was likely to occur. In addition, the electric field was evenly distributed across all lower frequencies so that only a very small electric field component existed at any specific low frequency. PMID: 820328
81: Bioelectromagnetics. 1989;10(1):111-3. Intensity threshold for 60-Hz magnetically induced behavioral changes in rats. Liboff AR, Thomas JR, Schrot J. Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309-4401. Experiments were conducted to further investigate the effect of 60-Hz cyclotron-resonance exposures on rats performing on a multiple FR-DRL schedule. The previously reported temporary loss of DRL baseline response, when measured as a function of A.C. magnetic intensity, was found to have a threshold. Utilizing the component of A.C. magnetic intensity parallel to the D.C. field, we report this threshold as (0.27 +/- 0.10) x 10(-4) Trms. PMID: 271283682:
Gig Sanit. 1993 Dec;(12):39-40. [The effect of superhigh frequency electromagnetic radiation on the central nervous system] [Article in Russian] Krylova IN, Iasnetsov VV, Pal’tsev IuP, Il’in AB, Kuznetsova EIu, Balaeva NV. PMID: 812536886:
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 Sep-Oct;37(5):756-61. [Behavior reactions and lipids of brain synaptic membranes of rats under chronic exposure to gamma irradiation] [Article in Russian] Semenova TP, Medvinskaia NI, Potekhina NI, Kolomiitseva IK. The effects of low level chronic ionising irradiation (12.9 cGy/day on the sensory attention to the stimuli of different modalities (somatosensory, visual, odor) of Wistar rats were studied. Analysis of animals behaviour was made after they had received the different doses of irradiation: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 Gy. It was founded, that the attention and exploratory activity of rats is significantly decreased up to 20-30% after 4-6 Gy. The irradiation doses 8 Gy did not change animal behaviour as compared to control animals, but doses 10, 15 and 20 Gy decreased the exploratory activity as well as sensory attention of rats to 3-5-times as compared to previous dose. Such a wave-like way of behaviour reflects the functioning of an adaptive mechanism. Biochemical data indicated that after 5 months of the irradiation (dose 20 Gy) the level of phospholipids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol were decreased. PMID: 941730587:
Z Gesamte Hyg. 1991 Jan;37(1):4-7. [Standardization of electromagnetic fields of 3-30 MHz with reference to the time factor] [Article in German] Savin BM, Lobanova EA, Kosova IP, Sokolova IP, Rubcova NB, Lochodzej LV, Klescenok OI. Wissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fur Arbeitshygiene und Berufskrankheiten, Akademie der Medizinischen Wissenschaften, UdSSR, Moskau. In chronic experiments (4 months) in rabbits, rats, and mice biological effects were investigated from 7 exposure regimen of electromagnetic fields with a frequency of 24 MHz at field strengths of the electric field component of 125, 250, 500, and 1,000 V/m, respectively, and an exposure time of 0.25, 1, and 4 hrs. respectively. The effects on the CNS, the immune and hormone systems, the peripheral blood and on the spermato and embryo genesis were estimated. The results delivered the basis for the introduction of an index. In point of time different limit values are to be determined according to the energetic load. A concrete value for the energetic load 7,200 (V/m)2.h is proposed as maximum allowable field strength of the electric component 300 V/m. PMID: 202868088:
90: Biofizika. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(5):935-40. [Effect of modified SHF and acoustic stimulation on spectral characteristics of the electroencephalograms of the cat brain] [Article in Russian] Ivanova VIu, Martynova OV, Aleinik SV, Limarenko AV. Ykhtomskii Research Institute of Physiology, St. Petersburg State University, Russia. The effect of modulated electromagnetic fields on the spectral parameters of bioelectric brain activity in awake cats was studied by registering the electroencephalogram from the skin surface in the vertex area using carbon electrodes. In the normal electroencephalogram, spectral components in the range above 20 Hz predominated. It was shown that, upon irradiation with electromagnetic field (basic frequency 980 MHz, power density 30-50 microW/cm2), spectral components in the range of 12-18 Hz begin to prevail. A similarity in the redistribution of the power of spectral components upon both acoustic and modulated electromagnetic influences was revealed. The results suggest that there is a a common neurophysiological mechanism by which modulated electromagnetic radiation and acoustic stimulation affect the electrical activity of the brain. This ia consistent with the assumption that the effect of the electromagnetic field on the central nervous system is mediated through the acoustic sensory system. PMID: 1109472691:
Biofizika. 1996 May-Jun;41(3):762-4. [Combined effect of variable and static magnetic fields on rat behavior in the “open field “] [Article in Russian] Deriugina ON, Pisachenko TM, Zhadin MN. The influence of combined alternating and static magnetic fields on rat behavior in the “open field” test was studied. The action of the cyclotron and Larmor frequencies of calcium, natrium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, lithium, and zinc ions was investigated. The statistically significant influence of the cyclotron frequencies of calcium and magnesium ions was revealed. The calcium frequency caused depression of investigating activity of the animals and the magnesium one evoked increasing moving and investigating activities. The rest of frequencies did not significantly act on the animal behavior. PMID: 892448192:
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1994;(1):31-3. [Effect of low intensity and ultra high frequency electromagnetic irradiation on memory functions] [Article in Russian] Krylova IN, Ilin AB, Dukhanin AS, Paltsev IuP, Iasnetsov VV. The experiments on rats proved that low intensity electromagnetic waves result in retrograde amnesia due to benzodiazepine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and cholinergic mechanisms. Nootropic drug pyracethamum was proved to reduce the pathologic effect. PMID: 780471293:
Biomed Tech (Berl). 1997;42 Suppl:103-4. [Current status of risk discussion of low frequency electric and magnetic fields and high frequency electromagnetic radiation] [Article in German] Petrowicz O. Institut fur Experimentelle Chirurgie, Technischen Universitat Munchen. PMID: 951706794: Med Radiol (Mosk). 1984 Dec;29(12):46-9. [Experimental study of the effects of acute uneven microwave irradiation] [Article in Russian] Zuev VG, Ushakov IB. The purpose of the study was to reveal parts of the body affected by radiation most of all in uneven microwave irradiation (current frequency of 2.4 GHz/s) by the destruction criterion taking account of some indicators of the absorbed power of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Uneven irradiation was achieved by the screening of some parts of the body with radiopaque material leaving unshielded parts subjected to irradiation. Control over the redistribution of absorbed energy was exercised by means of multichamber phantoms. In experiments on animals (female rats) within the range of specific absorbed power of 15-40 mWg the utmost affection of the cranial segment was revealed. The results show good correlation with a curve of the effect of 50% destruction criterion in total EMR irradiation. PMID: 651375295: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Jan-Feb;51(1):114-6. [Motor activity and emotional response in the open field test in rats after pharmacologic stimulation or blockade of neuropeptides in terminals of primary sensory neurons] [Article in Russian] Zhukova EM. Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk. Effects of high and low doses of capsaicin on the open-field behavioral patterns were examined in Wistar rats. The treated animals exhibited a significant increase in locomotion, grooming, and exploratory activity. PMID: 1125338996: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1997 May-Jun;37(3):336-42. [The dependence of the biological effect of electron radiation on the pulse repetition rate. The characteristics of the clinical manifestations in rats after irradiation at superlethal doses] [Article in Russian] Darenskaia NG, Nasonova TA, Aleshin SN. A comparison between biological effects of electron radiation (25 and 50 MeV) at doses of 100-300 Gy and with pulse recurrence frequencies from 3 to 2400 s-1, using general damage severity, distinctiveness of separate clinical manifestations and incidence of extremely severe forms of radiation sickness as criteria, has demonstrated some peculiarities of radiation pathology in rats under these circumstances. The pulse recurrence frequency influence varies with the criterion applied. PMID: 924452097:
Neurosci Behav Physiol. 1996 Nov-Dec;26(6):565-6. Device for artifact-free recording of brain electrical activity during exposure of rats to UHF fields in conditions of free behavior. Vorob’ev VV, Gorelkova TF, Konovalov VF. Laboratory of Medical Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino. PMID: 912163498: Gig Sanit. 1982 Feb;(2):7-11. [Meteorological radars as an energy source of a superhigh-frequency range electromagnetic field and environmental hygiene problems] [Article in Russian] Dumanskii IuD, Nikitina NG, Tomashevskaia LA, Kholiavko FR, Zhupakhin KS. PMID: 707598799: Patol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1984 May-Jun;(3):13-6. [Effect of a modulated UHF field on the behavior and hormone level of female rats under emotional stress] [Article in Russian] Rasulov MM. PMID: 6540858100: \
101: Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Dec;21(8):566-74. Prenatal exposure to 900 MHz, cell-phone electromagnetic fields had no effect on operant-behavior performances of adult rats. Bornhausen M, Scheingraber H. Institut fur Toxikologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany. To clarify potential health risks of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) used in cellular telephone technology to the developing brain, Wistar rats were continuously exposed during pregnancy to a low-level (0.1 mW/cm(2)) 900 MHz, 217 Hz pulse modulated EMF that approximated the highest legal exposure of normal populations to the radiation of base antennas of the GSM digital cell-phone technology. Whole body average specific absorption rate (SAR) values for the freely roaming, pregnant animals were measured in models; they ranged between 17.5 and 75 mW/kg. The offspring of exposed and of sham-exposed dams were coded and tested later as adults in a battery of ten simultaneously operated test chambers (Skinner boxes) during night time. Eight groups of ten coded animals in each group were tested for learning deficits in a sequence of nine, computer-controlled, 15 h sessions of the food-reinforced contingency Differential Reinforcement of Rate with increasing performance requirements. Two different sets of events were recorded: The food-reinforced lever-pressing activity of the animals and the inter-response intervals (IRIs) between consecutive lever presses. IRI-occurence patterns discriminated consistently between “learners” and “non-learners”. Analyses of performance scores and of IRI-patterns both showed that exposure in-utero to the GSM field did not induce any measurable cognitive deficits. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11102946102:
Med Pr. 2000;51(6):637-52. [Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and its health effects in electric energy workers] [Article in Polish] Szadkowska-Stanczyk I, Zmyslony M. Zakladu Epidemiologii Srodowiskowej, Instytutu Medycyny Pracy w Lodzi im. prof. dra med. Jerzego Nofera w Lodzi. Power frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) are briefly characterised, EMF sources occurring in the electromagnetic industry are discussed, and methods for and problems involved in the evaluation of individual occupational EMF exposure are also presented. The results of certain cohort industrial and case-referent studies indicate slightly enhanced risk of brain cancer and leukaemia in the group under study. The meta-analysis of the results obtained from numerous studies, published recently, showed a relative risk (RR) of 1.1-1.3 for leukaemia, and of 1.1-1.2 for brain cancer. Only a few studies demonstrate a dose-effect relationship for malignant neoplasms which decreases the power of the hypothesis on the cause-effect relationship. Among health effects of EMF exposure in electric utility workers, other than malignant neoplasms, an increased risk of certain diseases of the circulatory and neurological systems has been reported. The difficulty in the assessment of individual exposure is the main problem in evaluating the relationship between EMF exposure and adverse health effects in electric utility workers. We hope to investigate this further. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11288692103:
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Jan-Feb;38(1):110-5. [Radioprotective effect of weak ultra-low frequency alternating magnetic field in adrenalectomized mice] [Article in Russian] Stashkov AM. Simferopol State University, Krym, Ukraine. PMID: 9606412105: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1998;(11):6-8. [The evaluation of the body response of experimental animals to exposure to the magnetic component of electromagnetic radiation for setting a hygiene standard] [Article in Russian] Bogdanov AA, Bukharin EA, Davydova OK, Plakhov NN. Acute and subacute experiments were conducted to evaluate threshold response of white rats to variable magnetic intensity of magnetic section of electromagnetic irradiation with fixed frequency (3 MHz). PMID: 9885494106:
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Sep-Oct;39(5):583-7. [Biological and ecological aspects of the effects combined electromagnetic rays on farm animals] [Article in Russian] Ipatova AG, Ivanov VL, Koz’min GV, Kozlov VA. Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk. The study of a biological effect of ultraviolet, ultrahigh frequency and gamma-radiation, as well as combinations of these, on the functional status of the sheep body systems has made it possible to evaluate the sensitivity of a body exposed to these factors and its adaptive potentials. The pattern of variations in the body systems when a combined EMR is applied depends on to which extent one or another factor dominates the others. It is however possible that the effect of the leading factor is modified by that of a less severe radiation, energy characteristics of which differ from those of the dominating factor. PMID: 10576032107:
Fiziol Zh. 2003;49(1):87-93. [Changes in reactions in rats during hypokinesia and electromagnetic irradiation of ultrahigh frequency] [Article in Ukrainian] Temur’iants NA, Chuian OM, Verko NP, Moskovchuk OB, Tumaniants OM, Shyshko OIu, Min’ko VA, Kurtseitova EE. Tavritcheskiy University by V.I. Vernadsky, Sympheropol. The effects of low intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the hypokinetic stress were studied on rats. It has been shown that exposure to EMF, combined with hypokinesia or without it, prevented the typical stress reaction on the limited motility. EMF was determined to modify the adaptive processes which resulted in the adaptive activation and limiting stress reaction. Adaptation was characterized with lower anxiety and excitability of the central nervous system, and a higher level of non-specific resistance, as compared to the stress reaction. PMID: 12669526108:
Percept Mot Skills. 1999 Dec;89(3 Pt 1):1023-4. Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXXVII. Effects of synthetic and natural geomagnetic patterns on maze learning. McKay BE, Persinger MA. Department of Psychology, Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada. 12 normal male albino rats were exposed or not exposed in their home cages for 5 min. and 50 sec. once every hour 8 times per night to a 7-Hz square-wave magnetic field whose amplitudes were shifted by about 50 nT approximately every 10 sec. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for numbers of working errors, numbers of reference errors, or speed during the acquisition of an Olton (8-arm) maze, the strength of the group differences (F ratios) for daily working errors was reduced (rho = .70) if there had been enhanced geomagnetic activity during the time of the night when the experimental fields were present. PMID: 10665038109:
111: Gig Sanit. 1992 Mar;(3):46-9. [The sensitizing action of a high-frequency electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Nogachevskaia SI. PMID: 1427198
112: Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(3):257-71. Perturbations of plant leaflet rhythms caused by electromagnetic radio-frequency radiation. Ellingsrud S, Johnsson A. Department of Physics, University of Trondheim, Norway. The minute-range up and down rhythms of the lateral leaflets of Desmodium gyrans has been studied when exposed to electromagnetic radiation in the radio-frequency (RF) range. The RF radiation was applied as homogeneous 27.12 MHz fields in specially-designed exposure cells(and in some cases as non-homogeneous radiation of 27 MHz, amplitude modulated by 50 Hz, in front of commercial diathermy equipment). All fields were applied as pulses. We report effects in the leaflet rhythms such as temporary changes in the amplitude, period, and phase. The radiation could also cause temporary or complete cessations of the rhythms. The lowest dose (8 W/cm2) used was still effective. PMID: 8323575113: Toxicol Lett. 2000 Dec 20;118(1-2):9-19. Differential effects of low frequency, low intensity (
114: Gig Sanit. 1986 Jul;(7):34-6. [Biological action and hygienic significance of the electromagnetic field created by coastal radar facilities] [Article in Russian] Tomashevskaia LA, Solenyi EA. PMID: 3758706115:
121: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1992 Jul;114(7):52-4. [Dynamics of calmodulin in cerebral structures under the action of modulated UHF electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Katkov VF, Pavlovskii VF, Poltavchenko GM. The influence of modulated UHF-electromagnetic fields (low intensity) on calmodulin levels in several brain structures was studied. It was shown that UHF-electromagnetic fields influence calmodulin levels in the hypothalamus and sensorimotor cortex. Its effect depends on modulation regimes. PMID: 1421308
122: Radiobiologiia. 1982 Sep-Oct;22(5):687-90. [Effect of magnetic fields on the radiation sensitivity of mice.
1. Effect of infra-low frequency of magnetic fields of low intensity on survival of experimental animals after x-ray irradiation] [Article in Russian] Kopylov AN, Troitskii MA. PMID: 7178445
123: Neurosci Lett. 2000 Oct 13;292(3):171-4. Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is specific to the frequency and intensity of nocturnally applied, intermittent magnetic fields in rats. Cook LL, Persinger MA. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory and Department of Biology Laurentian University, Sudbury, P3E 2C6, Ontario, Canada. Female Lewis rats (n=72) were inoculated with an emulsion of spinal cord and complete Freund’s adjuvant. They were then exposed for approximately 6 min every hour between midnight and 08:00 h for 2 weeks to either 7 or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated magnetic fields whose temporal pattern was designed to simulate a (geomagnetic) storm sudden commencement. The peak strengths of the fields averaged between either 30-50 nT (low intensity) or 500 nT (high intensity). Rats exposed to the 7 Hz, low intensity magnetic fields displayed significantly less severe overt signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis than rats exposed to either of the two intensities of the 40 Hz fields, the high intensity 7 Hz field, or the reference (
124: IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2002;80:1-395. Non-ionizing radiation, Part
1: static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Publication Types: Review Review, Academic PMID: 12071196
125: Biofizika. 1996 Jul-Aug;41(4):866-9. [Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation and ultra-violet radiation on aggregation of thymocytes and erythrocytes] [Article in Russian] Roshchupkin DI, Kramarenko GG, Anosov AK. Electromagnetic radiation of superhigh frequencies (46.12 and 46.19 GHz, 0.3-1 mV/cm2) at an incident dose of about 12 kJ/m2 enhances the ability of isolated rabbit thymocytes for aggregation interaction with homologous erythrocytes. In the case of 46.19 GHz frequency, the stimulatory effect disappears as radiation dose in increased. A radiation of 46.12 GHz stimulates thymocytes also at high radiation doses. Superhigh-frequency radiation enhances the sensitivity of thymocytes to the damaging effect of UV radiation. PMID: 8962885
126: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):82-5. [Use of the parameters of the locomotor activity of animals in experimental and hygienic studies of microwave radiation] [Article in Russian] Navakatikian MA, Nogachevskaia SI. PMID: 2599414127:
129: Biomed Tech (Berl). 1997;42 Suppl:105-6. [Exposure facilities for study of the effect of high frequency electromagnetic fields on biological systems] [Article in German] Streckert J, Hansen V. Lehrstuhl fur Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Bergische Universitat-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal. PMID: 9517068
131: Prog Clin Biol Res. 1988;257:367-76. Possible physiological mechanisms for neurobehavioral effects of electromagnetic exposure. Shandala MG. A. N. Marzeev Research Institute of General and Communal Hygiene, Kiev, USSR. PMID: 3344276
133: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1996 Nov-Dec;46(6):1109-14. [The behavior of the progeny of prenatally irradiated rats] [Article in Russian] Sakharov DG, Dygalo NN. Ambulation and rearing in the open field were decreased in adult male offsprings of rats which were exposed to moderate doses of gamma-irradiation during the last third of their intrauterine development. Single combined external and internal irradiation of the ancestors in the middle of the intrauterine period resulted in increased ambulation in the open field (and its decreased latency) and activity in the wheel in their adult offsprings. The obtained evidence suggests that exposure of parents to harmful factors has its impact on behaviour of offsprings depending on the characteristics of such factors. PMID: 9054164
134: Int J Biometeorol. 1977 Dec;21(4):357-65. Behavioral effects in monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. de Lorge JO, Grissett JD. PMID: 413798
135: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Jan-Feb;38(1):116-20. [Modification of radiosensitivity of mice by combination of alternating magnetic field and fractionated irradiation with small daily doses over many days] [Article in Russian] Stashkov AM, Gorokhov IE. Simferopol State University, Krym, Ukraine. Everyday before radiation combination of weak magnetic field and fractioned radioactive irradiation in dose of 0.5 Gy up to total doses of 6.0-8.0 Gy increased surviving of mice by 34-53%, prolonged the life-time 1.5 times as much (half as much). It also decreased the rate of accumulation of damaged systems, extended average time of death and the value of dose changing factor, and reduced the gradient of damaged systems. PMID: 9606413
137: DLR Nachr. 1996 Feb;81:22-6. [Effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on the orientation behavior of unicellular organisms: new findings on the biological effect of electromagnetic alternating fields] [Article in German] Becker E, Hemmersbach R, Stockem W. Institut fur Zellbiologie der Universitat, Bonn. PMID: 11542970
138: Bioelectromagnetics. 2001 Apr;22(3):200-4. Why arguments based on photon energy may be highly misleading for power line frequency electromagnetic fields. Vistnes AI, Gjotterud K. Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. When evaluating possible mechanisms by which low frequency electromagnetic fields may have a biological effect, arguments based on photon energy have often been used in a misleading way. For visible light the concept of photons has proved to be very useful in explaining experimental findings. However, the concept of photons cannot be used without major modifications in describing phenomena related to near field problems at power frequency (50 or 60 Hz) electric and magnetic fields. For this regime, the photon description is very complex. A very high number of highly coherent photons must be used in a quantum electrodynamic description of low frequency electromagnetic field phenomena. Thus, one-photon interaction descriptions must be replaced by multiple-photon interaction formalism. However, at low frequencies, a classical electromagnetic field description is far more useful than quantum electrodynamics. There is in principle no difference in how much energy an electron can pick up from a low frequency electric field as compared to from a high frequency photon. Thus, the total gain in energy is not limited to the energy carried by a single photon, which is E = hv, where h is Planck’s constant and (v) is the frequency of the radiation. However, the time scale of the primary event in a mechanism of action is very different for ionizing radiation compared to power line frequency fields. The advice is to consider the time scale given by the inverse of the frequency of the fields, rather than photon energy, when one use physics as a guidance in evaluating possible mechanisms for biological effects from low frequency electromagnetic fields. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID: 11255216
141: Vrach Delo. 1983 Mar;(3):109-11. [Effect of different doses of a UHF field on the morphofunctional state of the kidneys] [Article in Russian] Belokrinitskii VS, Grin’ AN. PMID: 6858083
143: Physiol Behav. 1999 Jan 1-15;65(4-5):753-61. Corrected and republished in: Physiol Behav. 1999 Sep;67(3):753-61. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats. Lu ST, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Lee JC. McKesson BioServices, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Microwave Bioeffects Branch, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235, USA. The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect. PMID: 10073476
144: Lik Sprava. 1992 Oct;(10):69-71. [The brain function of animals exposed to the action of centimeter electromagnetic waves] [Article in Russian] Smolia AL, Bezdol’naia IS. It was established that centimeter electromagnetic waves (EMW) are a biologically active factor. Dynamic of changes of behavioural reactions under the effect of EMW evidences instability of the functional state of the brain EMW densities of 1000, 1500 mW/cm2 produce a response characterized by inhibition of motor activity. PMID: 1485453
146: Physiol Behav. 1999 Sep;67(3):753-61. Corrected and republished from: Physiol Behav. 1999 Jan 1-15;65(4-5):753-61. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats. Lu ST, Mathur SP, Akyel Y, Lee JC. McKesson BioServices, U.S. Army Medical Research Detachment, Microwave Bioeffects Branch, Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235, USA. The ultrawide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses are used as a new modality in radar technology. Biological effects of extremely high peak E-field, fast rise time, ultrashort pulse width, and ultrawide band have not been investigated heretofore due to the lack of animal exposure facilities. A new biological effects database is needed to establish personnel protection guidelines for these new type of radiofrequency radiation. Functional indices of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, systolic, mean, and diastolic pressures) were selected to represent biological end points that may be susceptible to the UWB radiation. A noninvasive tail-cuff photoelectric sensor sphygmomanometer was used. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to sham exposure, 0.5-kHz (93 kV/m, 180 ps rise time, 1.00 ns pulse width, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, SAR = 70 mW/kg) or a 1-kHz (85 kV/m, 200 ps rise time, 1.03 ns pulse width, SAR = 121 mW/kg) UWB fields in a tapered parallel plate GTEM cell for 6 min. Cardiovascular functions were evaluated from 45 min to 4 weeks after exposures. Significant decrease in arterial blood pressures (hypotension) was found. In contrast, heart rate was not altered by these exposures. The UWB radiation-induced hypotension was a robust, consistent, and persistent effect. Publication Types: Corrected and Republished Article PMID: 10497968
150: Gig Sanit. 1982 Oct;(10):38-41. [Genetic hazard of microradiowaves of nonheat intensity and its hygienic aspects] [Article in Russian] Shandala MG, Antipenko EN, Koveshnikova IV, Timchenko OI. PMID: 7173645
151: Radiobiologiia. 1986 May-Jun;26(3):365-71. [Systemic effects of the interaction of an organism and microwaves] [Article in Russian] Suvorov NB, Vasilevskii NN, Ur’iash VV. A study was made of the dynamics of neurophysiological processes, the autonomic nervous system reactions, and the behaviour of cats during long-term electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure (500 mu W/cm2, 2375 MHz). Revealed were the synchronization of the brain bioelectrical activity at 6-10 Hz and 12-16 Hz, different EMF sensitivity of the brain structures, the heart rate decrease, and the increase in the mobility and aggression of the animals. A complex of interrelated changes occurring virtually in all functional systems of the organism should be considered as a specific EMF effect. PMID: 3737885
152: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1980 Nov;90(11):602-5. [Effect of fluctuating electromagnetic fields on the processes of growth and blastomogenesis] [Article in Russian] Iur’ev VN, Krasnogorskaia NV. Rats were exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic field, adequate to the natural background, with Gaussian energy distribution, spectrum width 15 kHz, and field intensity 5 V/cm. Electric fluctuations were shown to have an inhibitory action on the normal growth of the animals and on blastoma development. This action reaches maximum with the greatest build-up gradient. As the frequency band of the field of action increase, the inhibitory effect declines. PMID: 7004528
155: Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001 May;25(3):235-60. A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field. Choleris E, Thomas AW, Kavaliers M, Prato FS. Room 9222D, Department of Psychology, Social Science Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2. The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg), as well as exposure to a non-pharmacological agent, a specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field (MAG) on open field behavior. We examined the duration, frequency and time course of various behaviors (i.e. exploration, walk, rear, stretch attend, return, groom, sit, spin turn, jump and sleep) exhibited by male mice in different regions of a novel open field. Both DZ and CDP consistently reduced the typical anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and wall-following (thigmotaxis), along with that of an additional new measure: ‘returns’, without producing any overall effects on total locomotion. The drugs also differed in their effects. CDP elicited a shift in the locomotor pattern from a ‘high explore’ to a ‘high walk’, while DZ mainly elicited alterations in sit and groom. The MAG treatment was repeated twice with both exposures reducing horizontal and vertical (rearing) activity and increasing grooming and spin turns. However, the anxiety-like behaviors of stretch attend and return were marginally reduced by only the first exposure. We conclude that a detailed ethological analysis of the OFT allows not only the detection of specific effects of drugs and non-pharmacological agents (i.e. pulsed magnetic field) on anxiety-like behaviors, but also permits the examination of non-specific effects, in particular those on general activity. PMID: 11378179
156: Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2001;37(2):213-24. [Infantile leukemia and exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields: review of epidemiologic evidence in 2000] [Article in Italian] Lagorio S, Salvan A. Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma. We review the epidemiological evidence on childhood leukemia and residential exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields. The possibility of carcinogenic effects of power frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF), at levels below units of micro tesla (microT), was first raised in 1979 by a case-control study on childhood cancer carried out in Denver, USA. In that study, excess risks of total cancer and leukemia were observed among children living in homes with “high or very high current configuration”, as categorised on the basis of proximity to electric lines and transformers. Many other epidemiological studies have been published since then, characterised by improved–although still not optimal–methods of exposure assessment. At the end of 2000, the epidemiological evidence to support the association between exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukemia is less consistent than what was observed in the mid 90s. At the same time, a growing body of experimental evidence has accumulated against both a direct and a promoting carcinogenic effect of ELF-EMF. Such “negative” experimental evidence hampers a causal interpretation of the “positive” epidemiological studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11758279
158: Lik Sprava. 1998 Oct-Nov;(7):71-3. [The effect of ultrahigh-frequency radiation on adaptation thresholds and the damages to blood system cells] [Article in Ukrainian] Obukhan KI. Cytologic investigations designed to study bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and thymus of albino rats irradiated by an electromagnetic field, 2375, 2450, and 3000 MEGS, revealed structural and functional changes in populations of megakaryocytes, immunocompetent cells as well as of undifferentiated cells, and of other types of cells that are dependent on the intensity of irradiation and permit establishing the probability-threshold levels of exposure taking account of reactions of perception and physiologic adaptation together with compensatory and regenerative processes and the injury sustained. It is shown that changes in bone marrow cells differentiation and reproduction rather than integral shifts in the peripheral blood that acquire the utmost significance. Subjected to a particular scrutiny in the paper are blast cells, which cells’ repopulation was noted to be getting increased in low-intensity exposure as were disturbances in their mitosis pattern. PMID: 10050464
164: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 Apr;76(4):489-501. Low-power electromagnetic stimulation of osteotomized rabbit fibulae. A randomized, blinded study. Pienkowski D, Pollack SR, Brighton CT, Griffith NJ. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-power-consuming symmetrical-waveform electromagnetic stimuli could increase the stiffness of fracture sites in a rabbit fibular-osteotomy model. Both active and placebo devices were used in a blinded study protocol. Dose-response studies of pulse amplitude and pulse width were performed by continuous application (twenty-four hours a day) of repetitive (fifteen-hertz), bursted (five-millisecond-long) symmetrical, rectangular electromagnetic stimulus waveforms. The power consumed by these stimuli is approximately one-fifth that consumed by the pulsing electromagnetic field devices that are in current clinical use. Significant increase of callus bending stiffness was produced by pulse widths of five to seven microseconds and pulse amplitudes of fifty to 100 millivolts. Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 8150816
166: Vrach Delo. 1980 Oct;(10):103-9. [Biomedical evaluation of electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Serdiuk AM. PMID: 7434689
174: Gig Sanit. 1989 Oct;(10):80-1. [Changes in enzyme activity of the lymphocytes in animals in the evaluation of the adaptive reactions to electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency] [Article in Russian] Dyshlovoi VD, Ianovskaia AS, Chaplinskaia TS. PMID: 2599412
176: Med Pregl. 2001 Mar-Apr;54(3-4):119-27. Morphophysiological status of rat thyroid gland after subchronic exposure to low frequency electromagnetic field. [Article in English, Croatian] Rajkovic V, Matavulj M, Lukac T, Gledic D, Babic L, Lazetic B. Institut za biologiju, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, 21000 Novi Sad. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low-frequency electromagnetic field on male rat thyroid gland of Mill Hill strain. Animals were exposed to 50 Hz frequency, of decaying intensity from 500 microT to 50 microT and 10 V/m field, beginning 24 hours after birth, 7 hours a day, 5 days a week during three months. Results of histological and stereological analysis showed increased volume density of thyroid follicles, decreased thickness of the follicular epithelium, intrafollicular colloid content in lumen, decreased thyroid activation index, increased volume density of parafollicular cells, decreased volume of interfollicular connective tissue and increased number of degranulated mast cells in exposed animals in regard to control animals. Radioimmunologic assays were used to examine thyroid hormone concentrations in the blood serum revealing decrease of the total T4 as well as of total T3 in animals exposed to electromagnetic field in regard to controls. The obtained results show that a three month-exposition of animals to low frequency electromagnetic field led to morphofunctional alterations of the thyroid gland that can be referred to as reduced activity of the gland. PMID: 11759202
177: J Microw Power. 1976 Jun;11(2):145-6. Proceedings: Comparative study of the action of three types of microwave fields upon the behavior of the white rat. Servantie B, Gillard J, Servantie AM, Obrenovitch J, Bertharion G, Perrin JC, Creton B. PMID: 1047672
178: Lik Sprava. 1993 Jan;(1):65-9. [Changes in the immune status under the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Dumanskii IuD, Nogachevskaia SI. Experiments on white rats showed that electromagnetic radiation (24 MHz, 400 W/m and 20 W/m) caused leucopenia, reduction of E and EAC rosette formation of lymphocytes, functional activity of neutrophils within 2 months of radiation. No immunosuppressive effect was seen with 24 MHz, 100 W/m radiation, while 400 W/m inhibited E-rosette formation in the presence of tissue antigens. PMID: 8379142
183: In Vivo. 2001 Nov-Dec;15(6):489-94. In vivo modulation of ETS genes induced by electromagnetic fields. Mucci N, Ianni A, Ursini CL, Arzani D, Bhat NK, Navarra P, Romano-Spica V. Department of Occupational Medicine, I.S.P.E.S.L., Rome, Italy. We have previously shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure induces ETS1 oncogene overexpression in different cell lines. In order to investigate in vivo EMF effects, BALB/c mice were exposed at different times to 50 MHz radiation, modulated (80%) at 16 Hz. The exposed and control animals were sacrificed and the spleen excised for rt-pcr and western blot analysis. We observed an increase in ETS1 mRNA and protein expression, but a decrease in ETS2 protein levels. Preliminary results from this experimental model show in vivo evidence of the effect of EMF on ETS oncogene expression. PMID: 11887334
184: Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):286. Comment on: Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):267-78. Toxicol Pathol. 1999 May-Jun;27(3):279-85. Rodent carcinogenicity studies on magnetic fields. Schwetz B. FDA (HF-32), Rockville, Maryland 20857, USA. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 10356704
187: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2001 Nov;11(65):447-51. [Immunotropic effects of electromagnetic fields in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies] [Article in Polish] Dabrowski MP, Stankiewicz W, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S. Zaklad Ochrony Mikrofalowej Wojskowego Instytutu Higieny i Epidemiologii w Warszawie. On the grounds of reviewed literature and the results of own experiments, the authors present current views on the possible immunotropic influence of low energy electromagnetic fields, in the range of radio- and microwave frequencies. They conclude, that a more systematic and multidisciplinary investigations should be undertaken, comprising the wide spectrum of immune homeostatic tasks, including defensive, immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative capabilities of immune system exposed to rapid environmental spread of different electromagnetic emitters. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11852821
195: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):700-5. [Effects of 2375 MHz pulse-modulated microwave radiation on ATPase activity of the rat muscle actomyosin] [Article in Russian] Pashovskina MS, Akoev IG. Solution of rat muscle actomyosin (AM) was exposed to pulse-modulated microwave. Carried frequency was 2375 MHz. The rectangular pulse modulation was in the range of 50-300 pulses per second. It was shown that AM activity was dependent both on modulation frequency as well as on microwave intensity. It was shown the frequencies of modulation which were changed ATP-ase activity of AM. PMID: 9019280
196: Science. 1983 Jun 17;220(4603):1283-5. Pulsing electromagnetic fields induce cellular transcription. Goodman R, Bassett CA, Henderson AS. Weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields can modify biological processes. The hypothesis that responses to such induced currents depend on pulse characteristics was evaluated by using transcription as the target process. Two pulses in clinical use, the repetitive single pulse and the repetitive pulse train, were tested. These pulses produced different results from each other and from controls when transcription in dipteran salivary gland cells was monitored with tritiated uridine in transcription autoradiography, cytological nick translation, and analysis of isolated RNA fractions. The single pulse increased the specific activity of messenger RNA after 15 and 45 minutes of exposure. The pulse train increased specific activity only after 45 minutes of exposure. PMID: 6857248
199: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):8-11. [Changes in gastric electric activity and serum catecholamine level under the influence of electromagnetic microwaves (experimental studies)] [Article in Russian] Kulkybaev GA, Pospelov NI. Chronic experiments on 17 dogs revealed that ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic waves applied on epigastric area and head induce a double-phase response: depressed electric activity of gaster and increased total catecholamines level during exposure, but higher gastric activity and lower levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in 24 hours after each of 10 procedures and during 7 days after 10 procedures. Double-phase changes in electric activity of gaster could be explained by double-phase fluctuations of humoral division in chromaffin system. PMID: 10881538
201: Biofizika. 1995 Sep-Oct;40(5):969-73. [Modification of reactions of rats to the effect of weak variable magnetic fields using a stress factor] [Article in Russian] Temur’iants NA, Mikhailov AV, Malygina VI. Stress-factor (hypokinesia) modifies the reaction of the adaptation, which develops under the changeable magnetic fields influence with 8 Hz frequency and 5 microT induction. It’s being corroborated by the decrease of nonspecific resistance in the initial adaptation period, by the increase of central nervous system excitability, by the absence of catecholamines accumulation in the hypothalamus and in adrenal glands. PMID: 8555295
202: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1995;(7):40-2. [A neuropharmacological study of amnesia in animals induced by ultra high frequency electromagnetic irradiation] [Article in Russian] Iasnetsov VV, Pal’tsev IuP, Popov VM, Levina AV. PMID: 7551702
204: Biofizika. 1994 May-Jun;39(3):515-8. [Controlled effect of an impulse electromagnetic field on the central nervous system] [Article in Russian] Pestriaev VA. Faint influences of impulses (1 ms) electromagnetic fields (173 A/m) with dynamic frequency-impulse modulation, which is regulated by feedback from electrocorticogram, and influences with fixed frequency of impulses run infra-low range affect on changing of current function state of central nervous system in different ways, is established. The white rats in the sleep-wake cycle were used in experiments. Besides, the first regimen of influence is more effective for changing of character of bioelectrical activity of cortex of head brain. The second one-for support of current processes of synchronization. PMID: 8043642
206: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1990 May-Jun;(3):58-66. [The experimental and clinical aspects of the action of electromagnetic fields on the endocrine glands and brain] [Article in Russian] Bogoliubov VM, Karpukhin IV, Maliavin AG. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 2219822
209: Med Pregl. 1997 Sep-Oct;50(9-10):357-62. [The effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system] [Article in Croatian] Lazetic B, Kozarcic T, Stankov K. Zavod za fiziologiju, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad. This paper presents literature data about effects of low-intensity variable electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system of experimental animals. We mostly paid attention to electromagnetic fields frequently found in our environment, in technological processes, even in our everyday life. This study shows that the regulatory systems (nervous and endocrine) are extremely sensitive to effects of electromagnetic fields. In regard to structures of the central nervous system hypothalamus shows particularly high sensitivity whereas we can consider a hypothesis that effects of this physical factor may be expected in other systems too. It has been emphasized that the effects of electromagnetic fields on regulatory mechanisms may be connected with primary disturbances on the cellular and subcellular (mitochondrial) level. Publication Types: Review Review, Academic PMID: 9471530
212: Biofizika. 2001 Jul-Aug;46(4):753-60. [Effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity on parameters of humoral immunity in healthy mice] [Article in Russian] Lushnikov KV, Gapeev AB, Sadovnikov VB, Cheremis NK. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. The modification of indices of the humoral immune response to thymus-dependent antigen (sheep erythrocytes) after a whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation was studied. Male NMRI mice were exposed in the far-field zone of horn antenna at a frequency of 42.0 GHz and energy flux density of 0.15 mW/cm2 under different regimes: once for 20 min, for 20 min daily during 5 and 20 successive days before immunization, and for 20 min daily during 5 successive days after immunization throughout the development of the humoral immune response. The intensity of the humoral immune response was estimated on day 5 after immunization by the number of antibody-forming cells of the spleen and antibody titers. Changes in cellularity of the spleen, thymus and red bone marrow were also assessed. The indices of humoral immunity and cellularity of lymphoid organs changed insignificantly after acute exposure and series of 5 exposures before and after immunization of the animals. However, after repeated exposures for 20 days before immunization, a statistically significant reduction of thymic cellularity by 17.5% (p < 0.05) and a decrease in cellularity of the spleen by 14.5% (p < 0.05) were revealed. The results show that low-intensity extremely-high-frequency electromagnetic radiation with the frequency and energy flux density used does not influence the humoral immune response intensity in healthy mice but influences immunogenesis under multiple repeated exposures. PMID: 11558390
213: Biofizika. 2001 Nov-Dec;46(6):1096-102. [Degranulation of skin mast cells caused by high frequency electromagnetic irradiation of low intensity] [Article in Russian] Popov VI, Rogachevskii VV, Gapeev AB, Khramov RN, Fesenko EE. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 Russia. It was shown by light and electron microscopy that local exposure of the projection of the MC-8 lao-gun acupuncture point in rat pad to low-intensity (0.05 mW/cm2) extremely high-frequency (42.0 GHz) electromagnetic radiation caused a degranulation of derma mast cells. It was suggested that the response of skin mast cells is an important amplifying mechanism in the chain of events leading to a systemic response of the organism to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation. PMID: 11771285
214: Gig Sanit. 1981 Oct;(10):35-8. [Effect of a superhigh-frequency electromagnetic field on animals of different ages] [Article in Russian] Shutenko OI, Koziarin IP, Shvaiko II. PMID: 7308758
215: Gig Sanit. 1990 Aug;(8):62-3. [Hygienic standardization of electromagnetic radiation from two-channel meteorological radar stations] [Article in Russian] Nikitina NG, Tomashevskaia LA. The study was designed to analyze the impact of the combined electromagnetic fields (EMF) with the wavelength of 10 and 0.8 cm and various levels of energy current density on the central nervous system, metabolic processes, immune resistance and reproductive function. Proceeding from the obtained data maximum allowable levels of EMF produced by the prospective two-channel meteorological++ radars were established. PMID: 2283071
218: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1982 Mar-Apr;16(2):84-7. [Role of polarization and resonance in assessing the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Galkin AA. The dosimetric concept of measurements of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) during irradiation of biological objects can be realized by methods of mathematical modelling of EMR interactions with biological objects, which can be represented as an image of the human body as a uniform ellipsoid of revolution. The efficient surface of EMR absorption for the models shows a marked resonance dependence on the radiation frequency. The ratio of the largest to the smallest axes of the ellipsoid of revolution can be used as a resonance criterion. Besides, radiation polarization needs to be taken into consideration. This paper discusses the frequency dependence of the efficient absorption surface for three major types of radiation polarization. The paper demonstrates an applicability of the calculation method to the evaluation of the EMR absorbed dose rate. PMID: 7070047
219: Brain Res. 2002 Jul 5;943(1):142-50. Human urocortin II: mild locomotor suppressive and delayed anxiolytic-like effects of a novel corticotropin-releasing factor related peptide. Valdez GR, Inoue K, Koob GF, Rivier J, Vale W, Zorrilla EP. Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN7, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Recently, human urocortin II (hUcn II), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, was identified. The following experiments sought to compare the effects of this novel CRF-related peptide versus those of ovine CRF (oCRF) on locomotor activation and anxiety-related behavior, using the locomotor activity test and the elevated plus maze, respectively. To examine locomotor activity during the active (dark) and inactive (light) phases, rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg of hUcn II (n=8/group active; n=6-9/group inactive) or oCRF (n=8/group active; n=8/group inactive) 2 h after the onset of their respective testing phase and monitored for 3 (inactive) or 5 (active) h. To compare the effects of CRF-related peptides on exploration of the elevated plus maze, rats were pretreated (i.c.v. 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 microg) with hUcn II (n=7-11/group) or oCRF (n=7-10/group), 10 min prior to testing. Delayed effects in the elevated plus maze were examined in rats injected with 1.0 microg of hUcn II (n=8/group) or oCRF (n=6-8/group), or vehicle (n=8/group) 1, 4 or 6 h before testing. In contrast to the activational effects of oCRF, hUcn II mildly suppressed locomotor activity during the inactive phase. hUcn II did not acutely affect open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, whereas oCRF decreased this measure. However, hUcn II increased open arm exploration 4 h after injection. Thus, hUcn II exhibits mild motor suppressive effects and delayed anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting a time-dependent role for hUcn II in the regulation of stress-related behavior. PMID: 12088848
223: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1996 Sep-Oct;36(5):659-70. [Role of modulation in biological effects of electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Grigor’ev IuG. Data, describing a role of modulation of electromagnetic fields in development of biological effect, are considered. Outcomes of researches, indicating the dependence of a response of nervous and immune systems on a kind of modulation at low levels of effect, are represented. The necessity of the account of a role of modulation in an evaluation of electromagnetic danger is formulated. PMID: 9019276
224: Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2001 Sep-Oct;51(5):563-71. [Dynamics of spectral characteristics of theta- and alpha-range EEG during negative emotional reactions] [Article in Russian] Il’iuchenok IR, Savost’ianov AN, Valeev RG. Institute of Higher Nerous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. Power characteristics of the EEG theta and alpha rhythms were studied in a human in neutral state and during a conditioned negative emotional reaction (Fp1, Fp2, F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, O2, F7, F8, T3, T4, T5, and T6 derivations). A significant increase in the relative spectral power in the narrow theta band of 7.4-8.1 Hz in the frontocentral and temporal brain regions was observed during the development of the negative emotional reaction. The alpha-rhythm dynamics during the negative reaction was substantially individual and could be expressed in either an increase, or decrease in relative spectral power of different alpha-frequencies. No pronounced changes in their dynamics could also be observed. In some subjects the spectral power of the medium-frequency alpha-rhythm significantly decreased, that of the high-frequency rhythm increased, and changes in the spectral power of the low-frequency alpha range varied. PMID: 11764515
227: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(12):9-13. [Role of nonspecific cellular resistance factors in hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic nonionizing radiation] [Article in Russian] Obukhan EI. The most sensitive indices of the blood system at EMF exposure (disorders of megakaryocytes differentiation, unspecific reactions, repopulation of the blasts cells a. al.) have been determined by the cytologic investigations. At has been revealed that allowable UVF levels effect are situated below the threshold of activisation of adaptive reactions (less than 0.01 mV/cm2), for occupational conditions–at the level of compensatory processes (0.05-0.1 mV/cm2). The intensities higher than 0.5 mV/cm2 were estimated as critical. Involution of megakaryocytes, polimorphism and disturbances the structure of leucocytes a. al. were revealed as EMF markers which allow to carry out an express-diagnostic. PMID: 11965742
230: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002 May-Jun;42(3):322-30. [Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of animals] [Article in Russian] Akoev IG, Pashovkina MS, Dolgacheva LP, Semenova TP, Kalmykov VL. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino, 142290 Russia. The dependence of activities of actomyosin ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartataminotranspherase, monoaminoxidase and that of affective rat behavior on frequency of modulation of microwaves (0.8-10 microW/cm2) was explored at short-time actions. Series of nonlinear phenomenons, inexplicable from positions of the energy approaches are revealed, The working hypothesis explaining opportunity of high performance of weak and super-weak microwaves and other revealed phenomena by resonance interaction of such electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation with paramagnetic molecules of biological tissues was proposed. This resonance interaction activate free radicals and initiate auto-supporting and auto-intensifying of chain chemical reactions. The spontaneous autocatalytic oxidation of catecholamines enlarges a common pool of free radicals, capable to participate in such enhanced generating. The protective role of monoaminoxidase is postulated. Monoaminoxidase is basically located on an outer surface of mitochondrias and it is deaminating monoamines. The deaminating prevents penetration of catecholamines inside of mitochondrias and their quinoid oxidation there with formation of free-radical semi-quinons, capable to destroy system of ATP synthesis. These inferences are obliquely confirmed by the experimentally revealed correlation between activity of monoaminoxidase and integrative activity of the rat brain. PMID: 12125273
235: Brain Res. 2001 Jun 15;904(1):43-53. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices. Tattersall JE, Scott IR, Wood SJ, Nettell JJ, Bevir MK, Wang Z, Somasiri NP, Chen X. Biomedical Sciences Department, CBD Porton Down, SP4 0JQ, Salisbury, UK. Slices of rat hippocampus were exposed to 700 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency (RF) fields (25.2-71.0 V m(-1), 5-15 min exposure) in a stripline waveguide. At low field intensities, the predominant effect on the electrically evoked field potential in CA1 was a potentiation of the amplitude of the population spike by up to 20%, but higher intensity fields could produce either increases or decreases of up to 120 and 80%, respectively, in the amplitude of the population spike. To eliminate the possibility of RF-induced artefacts due to the metal stimulating electrode, the effect of RF exposure on spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in CA3 by 4-aminopyridine (50-100 microM) was investigated. Exposure to RF fields (50.0 V m(-1)) reduced or abolished epileptiform bursting in 36% of slices tested. The maximum field intensity used in these experiments, 71.0 V m(-1), was calculated to produce a specific absorption rate (SAR) of between 0.0016 and 0.0044 W kg(-1) in the slices. Measurements with a Luxtron fibreoptic probe confirmed that there was no detectable temperature change (+/- 0.1 degrees C) during a 15 min exposure to this field intensity. Furthermore, imposed temperature changes of up to 1 degrees C failed to mimic the effects of RF exposure. These results suggest that low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects. The changes in excitability may be consistent with reported behavioural effects of RF fields. PMID: 11516410
236: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1994 Dec;118(12):606-8. [Correction of disruptions in learning and memory, caused by the effect of superhigh frequency electromagnetic emissions, by nootropic drugs] [Article in Russian] Iasnetsov VV, Popov VM, Pal’tsev IuP, Levina AV, Motin VG. PMID: 7703455
237: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(6):38-40. [Combined effect of noise and electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency (experimental study)] [Article in Russian] Khudnitskii SS, Murzenok PP, Vikent’eva NK, Tsykhun GF, Netukova NI. PMID: 10420718
238: Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1980 Feb;(2):46-7. [Calcium and magnesium content in the tissues of rats exposed to an industrial-frequency electromagnetic field] [Article in Russian] Dyshlovoi VD, Radlovskaia ZT, Arkhipchuk VD, Kachura VS. PMID: 7378163
240: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1998 Mar-Apr;38(2):223-31. [Forming of memory (imprinting) in chicks after prior low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Grigor’ev IuG, Stepanov VS. State Research Centre of Russia-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow. EMF of power density from 0.4 to 10 mW/cm2 can influence forming the memory (imprinting). Showed the possibility to fix EMF modulated in embryonic brain during the natal period and conservation of this information after birth. PMID: 9633625241: Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1982 Feb;37(2):187-90. [Animal experiment studies of the question of radiogenic caries] [Article in German] Vogel C, Reichart P, Hassenstein E, Ronneberger H. PMID: 6951707
242: J Cutan Pathol. 2003 Feb;30(2):135-8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular telephone on epidermal Merkel cells. Irmak MK, Oztas E, Yagmurca M, Fadillioglu E, Bakir B. Department of Histology and Embryology,Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey. The number of reports on the effects induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from cellular telephones in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now, no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of this radiation except a role suggested for mast cells. Merkel cells may also play a role in the mechanisms of biological effects of EMR. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of EMR from a cellular telephone (900 MHz) on Merkel cells in rats. A group of rats was exposed to a cellular telephone in speech position for 30 min. Another group of rats was sham-exposed under the same environmental conditions for 30 min. Exposure led to significantly higher exocytotic activity in Merkel cells compared with the sham exposure group. This finding may indicate the possible role of Merkel cells in the pathophysiology of the effects of EMR. PMID: 12641793 [PubMed – in process]
243: Bioelectromagnetics. 1998;19(2):136-8. Comment on: Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(2):111-5. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields do not interact directly with DNA. Adair RK. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA. Blank and Goodman [(1997): Bioelectromagnetics 18:111-115] suggest that weak extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields affect intracellular DNA directly. We show that such a conclusion is not in accord with physical principles. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 9492173
245: IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1981 Mar;28(3):258-64. Measurements of the RF power absorption in spheroidal human and animal phantoms exposed to the near field of a dipole source. Iskander MG, Massoudi H, Durney CH, Allen SJ. PMID: 7228071
246: Gig Sanit. 1989 Jun;(6):84-6. [Evaluation of the work capacity of laboratory animals in a toxicologic experiment] [Article in Russian] Fedotov VP, Moskalev OS, I’lin BN. PMID: 2792810
247: Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1998;32(5):40-5. [Evaluation of individual radiation resistance of rats based on reactions to non-radiation testing] [Article in Russian] Shtemberg AS, Farber IuV, Shafirkin AV. Presented are the data on radiation sensitivity of various groups of animals preliminary differentiated by their tolerance of acute hypoxia. The processes of blood forming system impairment and reparation are detailed. As was shown, highly resistant to hypoxia rats are distinguished by the best radiation resistance. Survivability of these rats was significantly higher as compared with other groups of animals. Recovery of blood formation by both the red and white chits following exposure to [symbol: see text] of the mean lethal dose proceeded more rapidly in the radiation resistant rats. PMID: 9883333
251: Vopr Onkol. 1996;42(5):13-21. [Super-low frequency electric and magnetic fields and their role in development of neoplasms] [Article in Russian] Muratov EI. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 9064896
252: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jul-Aug;(4):7-11. [Pain relief by low-intensity frequency-modulated millimeter waves acting on the acupuncture points] [Article in Russian] Samosiuk IZ, Kulikovich IuN, Tamarova ZA, Samosiuk NI, Kazhanova AK. Analgetic effect of low-intensive frequency-modulated millimetric waves (MW) was studied in mice with formalin induced nociceptive behavior reaction (licking of defeat hindpaw). MW were applied to the acupoint E 36 of the defeat hindpaw. The following MW were used: 60 GHz (1) and 118 GHz (2) which were modulated by 4 Hz; noise MW within the range of 42-95 GHz (3) and 90-140 GHz (4) which were modulated in accidental order by frequencies 1-60 Hz; combinations of fixed frequencies with noise – 60 GHz + noise 42-95 GHz (5) and 118 GHz + noise 90-140 GHz (6). All used MW combinations suppressed licking of the defeat hindpaw and increased duration of sleep and eating. The strongest analgesia was achieved in series 1-3 (42.4-69.7%), the weakest in series 6 and 4 of the experiment (12.2-19.7%). PMID: 11008563
255: Dokl Akad Nauk. 1994 Jun;336(6):826-8. [Effect of a low-energy pulse of EHF and SHF-radiation of nanosecond duration with a high peak intensity on biological structures (malignant neoplasms)] [Article in Russian] Deviatkov ND, Pletnev SD, Chernov ZS, Faikin VV, Bernashevskii GA, Shchitkov KG. PMID: 7951017
256: Probl Kosm Biol. 1982;43:148-66. [Biological system reactions to adequate weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Kislovskii LD. Publication Types: Review PMID: 7048296
258: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Jan-Feb;39(1):79-83. [Mechanism of radiobiological effects of low intensity nonionizing electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Kudriashov IuB, Perov IuF, Golenitskaia IA. Moscow State University, Department of Biology. The results of the research of the biological effects of the non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation were studied from the position of “thermal” and “unthermal” mechanisms. The special attention was spared to analysing the information characterising the high sensitiveness of the human and animals organism to the very-low intensity electromagnetic fields. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10347601259: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):345-8. [Possible modification of radiation injury using radio frequency electromagnetic radiation] [Article in Russian] Aminova EM, Ismailov ESh. Daghestan State Polytechnic University, Makhach-Kala. The possibility of radioprotective action of electromagnetic fields and radiations in radiofrequency range have been considered. It has been shown that the EMF and EMR effects depend on parameters of acting field. It is necessary to establish biophysical and biochemical ways and mechanisms of EMF and EMR action for effective use of radioemissions as radioprotectors. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10366968
260: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1997;(5):24-30. [Features of the relationship of electromagnetic fields and biological objects and their shielding] [Article in Russian] Miroshnikova TK. PMID: 9235214
261: Biofizika. 1997 May-Jun;42(3):738-41. [Molecular mechanisms of biological action of low magnetic fields. II. Purification and characteristics of protein from rat brain chromatin which inhibit DNAse 1 activity] [Article in Russian] Shvetsov IuP, Smirnova GN, Novikov VV, Tret’iak TM, Fesenko EE. PMID: 9296636
262: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2000 Mar-Apr;40(2):149-53. [On the mechanism of cytogenetic effect of electromagnetic radiation: a role of oxidation homeostasis] [Article in Russian] Brezitskaia HV, Timchenko OI. Ukrainian Scientific Centre of Hygiene, Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kiev. It was established in the experiments on rats that the changes in free radical oxidation under the influence of non-ionizing radiation had a wavy character. It was revealed that the changes in oxidation homeostasis preceded development of cytogenetic effects and could be their reason. PMID: 10819036
263: Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;145(4):302-6. Influence of continuous electromagnetic fields on the stage, weight and stature of the chick embryo. Piera V, Rodriguez A, Cobos A, Torrente M, Cobos P. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Barcelona, Faculty of Medicine, Reus, Tarragona, Spain. The influence of continuous electromagnetic fields (0, 181 or 361 Gs/cm2) on the development of chick embryo (n = 144) was studied. Several parameters were determined at days 5, 10 and 15 of incubation: stage (following Hamburger and Hamilton), vertex-coccyx length (size) and weight. At 5 days of incubation, all embryos showed a similar stage. However, at days 10 and 15, the embryos exposed to 181 Gs/cm2 showed a stage significantly superior to that of the others. There were no differences between the exposed embryos and the control ones with regard to weight and stature, except at 15 days when the embryos exposed to 361 Gs/cm2 showed greater weight and stature than those of the controls. PMID: 10457769
264: Gig Sanit. 1999 May-Jun;(3):48-51. [The current problems of electromagnetic safety in computer classes] [Article in Russian] Afanas’ev AI, Volodarskii VIa, Gumener PI, Kaisina OV, Litvak II, Nadezhina LG, Shumkova TV. He paper presents the data on the present-day situation in the computer classes in general educational schools to show electromagnetic safety. It shows that most of 37 classes do not satisfy the requirement of electromagnetic safety and proposes modes of elimination of this danger. PMID: 10394739
265: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):3-7. [The general patterns in the development of the ultrastructural reactions under the action of electromagnetic radiations] [Article in Russian] Korolev IuN. Original investigations of the author provided authors with information on subcellular adaptive reactions in response to electromagnetic radiation. Activation of hyperplastic processes represents the leading structural-adaptive response of the body arising accelerated renewal of the ultrastructures. The author characterizes adaptive hyperplasia of the ultrastructures. The author characterizes adaptive hyperplasia emerging in bioenergetic and protein-synthetizing organelles in the cells of different organs. It is emphasized that high intensities provoke destructive processes. PMID: 9446304
266: Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1995 Dec;81(12):115-20. [The erythrocyte reaction of the moving blood in mammals to the action of permanent and pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Ignat’ev VV, Kidalov VN, Samoilov VO, Subbota AG, Sukhovetskaia NB, Siasin RI. PMID: 8754037
267: Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1999 Oct;36(5):337-40. Effect of amplitude modulated RF radiation on calcium ion efflux and ODC activity in chronically exposed rat brain. Paulraj R, Behari J, Rao AR. School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. The effect of exposing rats to amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation (112 MHz modulated to 16 Hz) during development and growth has been examined. Wistar rats (35 days old) when exposed at above frequency at the power level 1.0 mW/cm2 (SAR, 0.75 W/kg) for 35 days showed enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and Ca2+ efflux in brain indicating potential health hazards due to exposure. PMID: 10844985
M Sechenova. 1980 Feb;66(2):263-7. [Effect of radiowaves of nonthermal frequencies on the content of somatotropic hormone in the rat adenohypophysis] [Article in Russian] Demokidova NK. PMID: 7364125
271: Tsitologiia. 2000;42(1):92-5. [Activity of the genome of cardiomyocytes as an indicator of the development of adaptive changes in the myocardium following exposure of the central nervous system to electromagnetic fields] [Article in Russian] Zubkova SM, Mikhailik LV, Varakina NI, Strukova EV, Bobkova AS. Russian Scientific Centre of Rehabilitating Medicine and Health Resort Cure, Moscow. Methods of cardiomyocyte nuclei isolation from the myocard homogeneous mixture, and of cardiomyocyte genome activity estimation were elaborated. In the experiments with hyperlipoproteidemic rats, cardiomyocyte genome activity was shown to reflect the primary adaptive changes in the myocard, and to serve a reliable index of their influence on the CNS regulatory centres exposed to electromagnetic field, which is used for hyperlipoproteidemia treatment. The cardiomyocyte genome activity was used to distinguish between three types of development of adaptive reactions in the myocard. PMID: 1070925
273: Health Phys. 1971 Apr;20(4):421-4. Effects of 800-MHz electromagnetic radiation on body weight, activity, hematopoiesis and life span in mice. Spalding JF, Freyman RW, Holland LM. PMID: 5569217
274: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):32-5. [The evaluation of the consequences of electromagnetic irradiation of hands in operators of high-frequency welding devices] [Article in Russian] Rudakov ML. Method of secondary sources (method of integral equations) was applied to calculate specific absorbed intensity in hands of operators working at non-shielded high-frequency (27.12 Mhz) welding devices. The authors present calculations for “female” and “male” hand sizes, give recommendations on lower level of specific absorption. PMID: 10881543
275: Pol Tyg Lek. 1985 Nov 18-25;40(46-47):1304-7. [Anxiety level and duration of the disease in patients with leukemia] [Article in Polish] Wrona-Polanska H. PMID: 4094938
276: Psychol Rep. 1973 Dec;33(3):731-6. Swim-tank measurement of radiation-induced behavioral incapacitation. Casarett AP. PMID: 4767829
277: Biull Eksp Biol Med. 2000 Jan;129(1):100-2. [[Effects of fractions of the cerebrospinal fluid from patients with drug addiction treated by liquor sorption on the behavior of rats-recipients] [Article in Russian] Pirumov PA, Ordian NE, Vasil’ev VIu, Shaliapina VG. PMID: 10710642
278: Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):1-4. Comment on: Epidemiology. 2001 Jan;12(1):7-12. Frequent radiation exposures and frequency-dependent effects: the eyes have it. Inskip PD. Publication Types: Comment Editorial Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11138802
279: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1996;(9):20-3. [Hygienic regulation of electromagnetic radiation of 300-3000 MHz frequency range] [Article in Russian] Kol’chugin IuI. The article contains analysis of national standards determining maximal allowable levels of electromagnetic exposure in some developed countries. The point of specific interest is the levels in frequency range of 300 MHz-30 GHz, as this range is widely used in most apparatus for mobile communication. Different in various countries, values of the maximal allowable levels appear to be the most strict in Russia. Incomplete knowledge of long-standing exposure to mild electromagnetic fields requires through medical and technical research to determine limits of safe application of mobile communication devices. PMID: 9019326
280: Bioelectromagnetics. 1984;5(1):31-8. Offset of the vacuolar potential of Characean cells in response to electromagnetic radiation over the range 250 Hz-250 kHz. Montaigne K, Pickard WF. Measurements were made of the small, transient offsets of vacuolar potential produced in single cells of Nitella flexilis and Chara braunii by isolated bursts of audio frequency electromagnetic radiation. The offsets increased in magnitude with decreasing frequency of the electromagnetic radiation and, below about 6 kHz, seemed to approach a low-frequency asymptote. This frequency dependence for the offset is shown to be in accordance with a previously developed model in which the incident radiation is weakly rectified by the cell’s membrane system. PMID: 6712748
281: Kosm Biol Aviakosm Med. 1981;15(3):26-8. [Emotional reactions and cardiac rhythm slow waves] [Article in Russian] Karpov AN, Zinov’eva LA. Simulation studies of various emotional reactions of operators have shown that sthenic emotional reactions induce inhibition of slow waves of cardiac rhythm (f=0.05 divided by 0.17 Hz,) whereas asthenic emotional reactions lead to excitation of slow waves in the above frequency range. PMID: 7289540
282: Dokl Akad Nauk. 1995 Oct;344(6):840-2. [Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) as a behavioural modifier in rats, subjected to low-background ionizing radiation] [Article in Russian] Semenova TP, Novoselova EG, Medvinskaia NI, Kuzin AM. PMID: 8535282
283: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2000;(5):5-8. [Changes of neurocytes in CNS under general exposure to UHF field with local protection applied] [Article in Russian] Leshin VV. Experiments on white rats were performed to study influence of UHF field on cortical sensomotor area under general exposure or with the head shielded. The changes in CNS caused by UHF field were not prevented completely by means of the shield. That is probably due to pathologic reflex impulses from the body receptors. PMID: 10881537
284: Med Hypotheses. 2000 May;54(5):685-8. Biological effects of low-level environmental agents. Kmecl P, Jerman I. BION, Institute for Bioelectromagnetics and New Biology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. We compare three similar but different biological effects: provocation-neutralisation treatment of non-antibody-mediated hypersensitivities, hormesis and low-level effects in radiation biology. All three have not yet been fully explained but share some common and interesting properties: non-linear concentration dependence, typical stress pattern and typical immune response. We try to make a generalisation of the three phenomena in terms of the informational properties of the low concentrations, and imply the possible common mechanism. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID: 10859665
285: Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 1997 Nov-Dec;(6):728-34. [The destruction of microscopic organisms by their irradiation with a special form of UHF electromagnetic signals] [Article in Russian] Antonov OE, Kozyreva EV, Svishcheva TIa, Goncharova NV. Aviakonversiya Ltd., Moscow, Russia. Electromagnetic signals of special form produced by an ultra-high frequency generator were used to destroy various microorganisms: baker’s yeast; blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum; mold fungus; and two flagellates, plant flagellate Euglena gracilis and an animal flagellate parasitizing on humans. The control samples before irradiation and experimental samples damaged and destroyed by irradiation were examined on a microscope with a computer system of image analysis. The results are presented as computer graph images. PMID: 9518060
286: Vopr Onkol. 1999;45(3):287-91. [Assessment of antineoplastic action of dehydrogenases in peripheral blood lymphocytes in S-45 tumor-bearing rats exposed to weak ultra-low-frequency irradiation] [Article in Russian] Shiikhliarova AI, Sheiko EA, Pil’ EA. Research Institute of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the RF, Rostov-on-Don. The aim of the investigation was to study the antitumor action of weak ultra low-frequency magnetic field (ULFMF) and application of a spectrum of dehydrogenases of peripheral blood lymphocytes as a sensitive indicator of such action in tumor S45-bearing rats. It was shown that application of weak ULFMF improves antitumor defenses and dehydrogenase activity tends to stay normal. The dehydrogenase activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used to assess immune system tension and synchronization of resistance processes. PMID: 10443233
288: Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1999;(6):31-4. [Occupational assessment of computer placement in school areas] [Article in Russian] Gel’tishcheva EA, Zhichkina GN, Serik NV, Khusainov TZh. The study included measurements of electromagnetic radiation emitted by MACINTOSH PC placed in public schools, functional state examination of schoolchildren sitting in rows in front of PCs. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by PCs appeared to harm higher nervous activity of the schoolchildren. With consideration of the studies conducted the recommendation is not to set workplaces in rows. The workplaces could be set perimetrically, with at least 1.0 m between the lateral borders of neighboring monitors. Angle-wise set workplaces should stay at least 2.0 m apart. PMID: 10420715
291: Rev Esp Cardiol. 2000 Jun;53(6):881-2. [Pacemakers, defibrillators, and electromagnetic environment: potential interactions with electronic mechanisms of surveillance should not be cause of anxiety for patients] [Article in Spanish] de Camargo Maranhao MF. Publication Types: Letter PMID: 10944984
292: Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Nov-Dec;39(6):707. [The international conference on human protection from electromagnetic fields hazard] [Article in Russian] Grigor’ev IuG. Publication Types: Congresses PMID: 1068944
294: Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(7):527-8; discussion 529. Comment on: Bioelectromagnetics. 1996;17(4):312-21. Comments on “Resonance effect of millimeter waves in the power range from 10(-19) to 3 X 10(-3) W/cm2 on Escherichia coli cells at different concentrations,” Belyaev et al., Bioelectromagnetics, 17:312-321 (1996) Osepchuk JM, Petersen RC. Full Spectrum Consulting, Concord, Massachusetts 01742, USA. Publication Types: Comment PMID: 9338635
295: Gig Sanit. 1997 Sep-Oct;(5):61-3. [Calculation of the average density of radiofrequency radiation power in biological objects] [Article in Russian] Rudakov ML. PMID: 9378358
297: J Microw Power Electromagn Energy. 2000;35(3):179-84. Complex high-frequency technology for protection of grain against pests. Mishenko AA, Malinin OA, Rashkovan VM, Basteev AV, Bazyma LA, Mazalov YuP, Kutovoy VA. Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The results of experimental investigation of physical methods are presented for suppressing of biological activity of grain and grain product pests: harmful insects at each developmental stage except eggs (Insecta), mites (Arachnida, Acariformes) and microscopic fungi and bacteria. The technologies under development for disinfestation and disinfection of grain are based on irradiation of grain by modulated pulses of high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic fields and on simultaneous action of a complex of factors: vacuum and HF-field induced plasma. The threshold value of the electric field intensity for total insect mortality was found to be E = 4.0-5.0 kV/cm in the pulse mode at the base frequency of 47.5 MHz. When the combined technology is used, conditions are created in the irradiation chamber for HF-discharge and plasma formation, which are very strong factors influencing the biological organisms. These raise the energy (and cost) efficiency (approximately $2-3 per tonne of grain) of the combined technology for destruction of grain pests with complete environmental safety. PMID: 11098443
299: Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch. 1966;32:46-57. [Neural mechanisms in emotional behavior] [Article in German] Zanchetti A. PMID: 6015213
300: Nunt Radiol. 1967;33:Suppl:545-54. [Preliminary data on radiosensitivity as a function of dose in rats selected on the basis of behavioral activity] [Article in Italian] Di Paola M. PMID: 5617459
301: Med Hypotheses. 2000 Aug;55(2):160-3. Human body frequency modulation by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions: a new paradigm and perspective for human health. Sudan BJ. This case study demonstrates that the normal human body frequency, which can be disturbed by electromagnetic influences of the environment, can be modulated by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions (physiological saline) and that occurrence of allergic reactions have subsequently been suppressed as a result of this modulation. The use of distilled water as control showed no effect on occurrence of allergic reactions. Further observations on the growth of various plants in a greenhouse exposed to various geomagnetic fields support the previous observations on humans. The neutralization of electromagnetic influences on humans using 0.9% sodium chloride solution or by enclosure of plants within a copper wire Faraday cage resulting in a normal and uniform growth of plants as compared with disturbed and irregular growth in unenclosed controls, is demonstrated. These original observations propose a new strategy to suppress or prevent allergic reactions and possibly other effects observed in various human pathologies in relation to a disturbance of human body frequencies. It is hypothesized that the double helix structure of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) could be modified by environmental electromagnetic fields and that disresonance between the two chains of DNA could lead to the expression of specific pathology. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID: 10904434
302: Lik Sprava. 1999 Jun;(4):51-6. [Low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in medicine: a factor in resonance therapy or a nonspecific adaptogen?] [Article in Russian] Karpan’ VN. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10476642
304: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2000 Jan-Feb;(1):14-6. [Electromagnetic and mechanical vibrations in the therapy of myofascial pains] [Article in Russian] Miriutova NF, Levitskii EF, Abdulkina NG. Low-frequency vibration effectively stimulates in a direct way or via reflexes neuromuscular apparatus in patients with muscular-tonic manifestations of spinal osteochondrosis. Long-term myofixation forms foci of denervation disorders as painful muscular consolidations with active center the irritation of which gives rise to phenomenon of reflected pain. In this case it is better to begin treatment with optic red and infrared radiation on the reflexogenic zones and muscular consolidations for reduction of trophic abnormalities. This creates favourable conditions for subsequent vibrostimulation of affected nerves and muscles. PMID: 11094873
305: Dokl Biophys. 2000 Jan-Jun;370-372:21-4.
Effect of high-power microwave radiation with nanosecond pulse duration on some biological objects. Bol’shakov MA, Bugaev SP, Goncharik AO, Gunin AV, Evdokimov EV, Klimov AI, Korovin SD, Pegel IV, Rostov VV. Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia. PMID: 11029032
306: Biofizika. 2000 Jan-Feb;45(1):144-7. [Electromagnetic information in the phenomenon of life] [Article in Russian] Kuzin AM. Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia. The author’s original experiments and ideas have been summarized, which concern the role of natural background radiation in maintenance of electromagnetic information essential for existence of the living organism as an integral whole. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 10732224
308: J Genet Psychol. 1969 Sep;115(1st Half):71-3. A criticism of the study of McDowell and Merchent on fearfulness in control and irradiated rats. Smith H, Dimond SJ. PMID: 5365004
309: J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1970 Aug;72(2):238-43. Comparison between two methods of demonstrating relatedness of emotionality variables in rats. King DL. PMID: 5489456
310: J Genet Psychol. 1969 Sep;115(1st Half):75-6. A criticism of the study by McDowell and Merchent on fearfulness in control and irradiated rats. A reply to the preceding criticism by Smith and Dimond. McDowell AA, Stolmeier PV. PMID: 5365005
311: Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1971;15(2):17-21. [Effect of an industrial frequency electric field on motor dominant formation] [Article in Russian] Sazonova TE. PMID: 5090847
312: Int J Biometeorol. 1973 Sep;17(3):277-84. [Influence of negative atmospheric ions on adaptation to an anxiety situation in rats] [Article in French] Olivereau JM. PMID: 4756241
313: Biofizika. 2000 Sep-Oct;45(5):950-3. [Chronobiological analysis of subarctic features of long-term dynamics of biological processes] [Article in Russian] Kashulin PA, Roldugin VK. Arctic-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute, Kola Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirovsk, Russia. The analysis of a large number of chronobiological observations (heliospheric modulations, cosmophysical factors, weak low-frequency electromagnetic influences, etc.) allows us to make a conclusion about the possibility of direct and indirect exogenous (relative to the biosphere) modulations of biological processes in avroral and arctic zones. A nonequivalence of various seasons for the performance of introduction experiments was established. It was shown that the intensive fluctuations of environmental conditions are very important for the survival of living forms introduced into subarctic regions. PMID: 1109472
316: Psychol Rep. 1965 Oct;17(2):595-602. Behavioral effects of stimulation by UHF radio fields. Eakin SK, Thompson WD. PMID: 5833745
317: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1996 Jun;57(6):576. A missing factor? Ely TS. Publication Types: Letter PMID: 8651079
319: PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 1992 Feb 17;68(7):946-949. Frequency upconversion of electromagnetic radiation upon transmission into an ionization front. Savage RL Jr, Joshi C, Mori WB. PMID: 10046039 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]